Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Clinical laboratory scientists are laboratory practitioners who analyze blood, urine, tissue, or other body specimens to provide critical, objective data for disease diagnosis, treatment planning, and preventative health care. Cytogenetic technologists study the morphology and behavior of chromosomes and assist the physician in correlating chromosome anomalies to the individual’s medical condition, especially in the areas of inherited disorders and cancer, so that an accurate diagnosis, treatment and management decisions and counseling can occur.

The Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLS) programs include:

  • Bachelor of Science in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
  • Post-Baccalaureate Certificates in CLS with specializations in Clinical Chemistry, Generalist, Hematology, Immunohematology, and Microbiology
  • Master of Science in Toxicology

Clinical laboratory technicians (CLT)/Medical Laboratory Technicians (MLT) who have completed a CLT/MLT program accredited by NAACLS, have earned an associate’s degree, and who are certified as a CLT or MLT by the Board of Certification (BOC) of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) can be accepted into the Bachelor of Science degree program at the Health Science Center. Core curriculum and all required courses must be completed before advancing to the senior year. Some coursework may be offered via distance learning.

The CLS programs are accredited by The National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS), 5600 N. River Road, Suite 720, Rosemont, IL 60018-5119; (773) 714-8880; e-mail info@naacls.org. Web site: http://www.naacls.org.  Graduates of the CLS programs and Cytogenetics program are eligible to take the national certification examinations given by the Board of Certification (BOC) of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), 33 West Monroe St., Suite 1600, Chicago, IL, 60603, 1-800-267-2727.

Graduates of the CLS programs may find employment opportunities in hospital laboratories as well as private, reference, research, industrial, biotechnology, veterinary, public health, and pharmaceutical laboratories. With advanced education and experience, graduates have additional career options, including research, teaching, and management.  Graduates of the Master’s program are employed in toxicology laboratories in medical examiners offices and in drug enforcement administration.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Admissions Requirements

The application deadline for fall entry (July) into the CLS programs is March 1. All application materials, the application fee, official transcripts, and all supporting documents must be received by the Office of the Registrar by the deadline.  Applicants who are enrolled in college courses at the time of application should submit an official transcript showing courses in progress. An official, updated transcript must be submitted upon completion of the courses.

Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in CLS applicants must complete a bachelor’s degree in biology, chemistry, or other closely related field that includes all math and science requirements listed below.Bachelor of Science in CLS applicants only must complete the Texas Core Curriculum (42 hours) with a grade of C or better in each course:

  • English Composition I & II, 6 hours
  • Precalculus, 3 hours
  • General Chemistry I with lab, 4 hours
  • Biology I with lab, 4 hours
  • Microbiology with lab (for science majors), 4 hours
  • Any philosophy, language, humanities, or English course, 3 hours
  • Any arts, drama, or music course, 3 hours
  • History 1301 & 1302, 6 hours
  • Government 2301 & 2302 or 2305 & 2306, 6 hours
  • Any psychology or sociology course, 3 hours

All applicants must complete the program prerequisites (20 hours) and requirements below (note: no grade of less than a C will be accepted; all science courses must be designated for science majors):              

  • Biology II, 3.0 hours
  • General Chemistry II with lab, 4 hours
  • Organic Chemistry I with lab, 4 hours
  • General Physiology or Human Physiology (upper division), 3.0 hours
  • Genetics, 3.0 hours
  • Statistics (math or psychology), 3 hours
  • Overall GPA of 2.5 (on a 4.0 scale)
  • Science GPA of 2.5 (on a 4.0 scale)
  • Completion of the Texas Common Application
  • Payment of the non-refundable application fee
    • Submission of official transcripts from each college and university currently or previously attended.   Applicants who are enrolled in college courses at the time of application should submit an official transcript showing courses in progress.  An updated transcript must be submitted upon completion of the courses.  Note: Transfer credits indicated on another school’s transcript are not accepted in lieu of submitting the original institution record for that coursework. Transcripts from institutions outside the United States must be submitted in the original language and must be accompanied by a NACES Members evaluation agency English translation.
    • Submission of two Reference Forms completed by former instructors (preferably science instructors) or employers
    • International Applicants only: Submit Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) scores; minimum scores 560 (paper) or 68 (Internet).

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Degree Requirements

Bachelor of Science in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

The Bachelor of Science in Clinical Laboratory Sciences degree program is a four-year program that consists of a minimum of 126 semester credit hours. Core curriculum, math, and basic science, courses should be completed prior to the acceptance into the program. The third and fourth year of the program is comprised of clinical laboratory science courses and clinical practicums that are completed at the Health Science Center. The courses listed below constitute the professional curriculum for the Bachelor of Science degree in Clinical Laboratory Science. Individualized degree plans are created for each student admitted to the program in consultation with the program director.

Post-Baccalaureate Certificates in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

The post-baccalaureate certificate programs are designed for students who hold a bachelor’s degree from a regionally or nationally accredited college or university and have met all science and math program requirements. Certificates are available in clinical laboratory science (generalist), clinical chemistry, hematology, immunohematology and microbiology.

The curriculum includes professional clinical laboratory sciences coursework completed at the Health Science Center. Science requirements not completed as part of the bachelor’s degree program may be taken as part of the certificate curriculum. Science requirements not completed as part of the bachelor’s degree program may be taken as part of the certificate curriculum.The curriculum requires approximately 24 months. Individuals holding a current certification in a clinical laboratory science discipline and seeking to obtain additional certification may petition for an exemption from didactic courses taken within the last seven years and for which they can demonstrate content equivalency. Students may enroll in one or more categorical certificate programs. Curricula for these programs may be completed in 24 months.

Degree- and certificate-seeking students must complete all courses listed as required core curriculum, program requirements, and professional courses in order to graduate. The minimum grade point average required for graduation from the Bachelor of Science and certificate programs is 2.0.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Sample Plans of Study

Bachelor of Science in CLS Professional Curriculum

CLSC 3000Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Sciences2
CLSC 3001Phlebotomy Practicum0.5
CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3011Quality Assurance in the Clinical Laboratory1
CLSC 3033Medical Microbiology3
CLSC 3034Medical Microbiology Lab2
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3060Immunohematology2
CLSC 3064Immunohematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3065Clinical Immunology3
CLSC 3071Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory0.5
CLSC 3081Clinical Chemistry2.5
CLSC 3082Clinical Chemistry Laboratory1.5
CLSC 3085Principles of Biochemistry3
CLSC 4006Professional Issues1
CLSC 4033Advanced Medical Microbiology2
CLSC 4037Microbiology Practicum4
CLSC 3040Special Topics in Microbiology2.5
CLSC 4053Advanced Hematology2
CLSC 4055Advanced Immunohematology2
CLSC 4057Hematology Practicum4
CLSC 4067Immunohematology Practicum4
CLSC 4070Immunology Practicum2
CLSC 4083Advanced Clinical Chemistry3
CLSC 4087Chemistry Practicum4
CLSC 4095Management2.5
CLSC 4190Research1
Total Credit Hours64

Professional Curriculum for all Post-Baccalaureate Certificates

CLSC 3000Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Sciences2
CLSC 3001Phlebotomy Practicum0.5
CLSC 3011Quality Assurance in the Clinical Laboratory1
CLSC 3065Clinical Immunology3
CLSC 3085Principles of Biochemistry3
CLSC 4006Professional Issues1
CLSC 4095Management2.5
CLSC 4190Research1
Total Credit Hours14

Additional Curriculum for CLS Post-Baccalaureate Certificate (Generalist)

CLSC 3040Special Topics in Microbiology2.5
CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3033Medical Microbiology3
CLSC 3034Medical Microbiology Lab2
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3060Immunohematology2
CLSC 3064Immunohematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3071Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory0.5
CLSC 3081Clinical Chemistry2.5
CLSC 3082Clinical Chemistry Laboratory1.5
CLSC 4033Advanced Medical Microbiology2
CLSC 4037Microbiology Practicum4
CLSC 4053Advanced Hematology2
CLSC 4055Advanced Immunohematology2
CLSC 4057Hematology Practicum4
CLSC 4067Immunohematology Practicum4
CLSC 4070Immunology Practicum2
CLSC 4083Advanced Clinical Chemistry3
CLSC 4087Chemistry Practicum4
Total Credit Hours50

Additional Curriculum for Clinical Chemistry Post-Baccalaureate Certificate

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3081Clinical Chemistry2.5
CLSC 3082Clinical Chemistry Laboratory1.5
CLSC 4083Advanced Clinical Chemistry3
CLSC 4088Clinical Chemistry Categorical Practicum6
Total Credit Hours20

Additional Curriculum for Hematology Post-Baccalaureate Certificate

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 4053Advanced Hematology2
CLSC 4058Hematology Categorical Practicum6
Total Credit Hours15

Additional Curriculum for Immunohematology Post-Baccalaureate Certificate

CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3060Immunohematology2
CLSC 3064Immunohematology Laboratory2
CLSC 4055Advanced Immunohematology2
CLSC 4068Immunohematology Categorical Practicum6
Total Credit Hours17

Additional Curriculum for Microbiology Post-Baccalaureate Certificate

CLSC 3040Special Topics in Microbiology2.5
CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3033Medical Microbiology3
CLSC 3034Medical Microbiology Lab2
CLSC 3071Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory0.5
CLSC 4033Advanced Medical Microbiology2
CLSC 4038Microbiology Categorical Practicum10
Total Credit Hours22

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Objectives/Program Outcomes

Students graduating from a Department of Clinical Laboratory Science program must meet the essential function requirements of the academic program and profession. They will complete programs consisting of academic study and clinical laboratory experience. The student will possess the skills and attributes necessary to perform as a professional before graduation from the program. These skills and attributes are known as essential functions and include the following:

Observation

The student will be able to:

  • Observe laboratory demonstrations in which laboratory procedures are performed on biological specimens (i.e. body fluids, culture materials, tissue sections, and cellular specimens).
  • Characterize the color, consistency, and clarity of biological specimens and reagents.
  • Department of Public Safety Laboratory
  • Use a clinical grade binocular microscope to discriminate among fine differences in structure and color (hue, shading, and intensity) in microscopic specimens.
  • Read and comprehend text, numbers, and graphs displayed in print, on audiovisual media and on a video monitor.

Mobility

The student will be able to:

  • Perform laboratory testing independently while adhering to existing laboratory safety standards.
  • Perform moderately taxing continuous physical work, often requiring prolonged sitting and/or standing, over several hours.
  • Travel to numerous clinical laboratory practicum sites.
  • Reach laboratory bench tops and shelves, patients lying in hospital beds or patients seated in specimen collection furniture.
  • Grasp, hold, transport, utilize specimens, reagents, hazardous chemicals, and equipment in a safe manner as needed to perform laboratory testing.
  • Obtain patient specimens in a timely, safe, and professional manner (e.g. perform phlebotomy).
  • Use laboratory equipment (e.g. pipettes, inoculating loops, test tubes) and instruments to perform laboratory procedures according to established laboratory guidelines.
  • Use a computer to operate laboratory instruments and to calculate, record, evaluate, and transmit laboratory information.
  • Troubleshoot and correct equipment malfunctions.

Communication

The student will be able to:

  • Read and understand technical and professional materials (i.e. textbooks, journal articles, handbooks, and instruction manuals).
  • Follow oral and written instructions independently.
  • Clearly instruct patients regarding specimen collection.
  • Demonstrate sensitivity, confidentiality and respect when speaking with or about patients or about patients’ data.
  • Communicate clearly, accurately and tactfully with faculty members, student colleagues, staff and other health care professionals orally and in a recorded format (writing, typing, graphics, or telecommunication). Oral communication includes the ability to ask and respond to formal and informal questions with confidence at an appropriate professional level. Written communication includes the ability to use correct grammar and spelling as well as the appropriate level of formality.

Intellect

The student will be able to:

  • Comprehend, measure, calculate, reason, integrate, analyze, evaluate, correlate, problem-solve and compare.
  • Recognize abnormal laboratory results (e.g. patient and QC) and take appropriate action.
  • Demonstrate critical-thinking and judgment skills appropriate to a given situation.

Behavior

The student will be able to:

  • Organize work and perform multiple tasks within given time constraints and under stressful conditions while maintaining the ability to communicate clearly.
  • Be flexible and adapt to professional and technical change.
  • Recognize potentially hazardous situations and proceed safely to minimize risk to self and others.
  • Be a team player (i.e. support and promote activities of colleagues and other health care professionals).
  • Accept and act on constructive criticism, critically evaluate self-performance, recognize and correct mistakes.
  • Be honest, compassionate, responsible, reliable and ethical.
  • Exercise independent judgment and accept responsibility for their work.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Program Policies and Information

Advancement to the Senior Year

A student must have no grade lower than a C in required science and clinical laboratory sciences courses to begin the senior year and begin clinical practicums. In addition, a CLS student must file an Intent to Enroll in Clinical Practicum form, available from the department office at least one semester before practicums begin. Students who are ready for clinical practicums are randomly placed based on availability of positions at the affiliate sites throughout South Texas. All students are expected to complete at least one practicum at an affiliate located outside of San Antonio. In the unlikely event that there are not enough sites available for the number of students ready to enter practicums, assignments will be made according to program policies. Students who must remediate a practicum will be assigned to an affiliate on a space-available basis.

Advisement and Schedule Planning

Applicants are encouraged to seek advisement from their college counselors or the Health Professions Office of Advising, Admissions and Recruitment at (866) 802-6220 (toll-free) or (210) 567-6220.  Students who complete lower-division course work at another college or university are urged to seek advisement about coursework that will fulfill program requirements well in advance of applying to the Health Science Center.  Students must be advised each semester before permission is given to enroll in professional courses.  For students in any Clinical Laboratory Sciences program, sequencing and completion of specific courses are very important. 

Certification

Students who successfully complete a certificate or degree in Clinical Laboratory Sciences or Cytogenetics are eligible to take the national certification examinations given by the Board of Certification (BOC) of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Awarding of the degree or certificate is not contingent on passing an external certification or licensing examination.

Credit by Examination

Students enrolled in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences baccalaureate or post-baccalaureate certificate programs may attempt to earn credit by examination according to the policy and procedures in the School of Health Professions section of this Catalog.  Students who have college credit for CLT/MLT coursework are eligible to take “challenge examinations.”  Students who are certified CLT (NCA) or MLT (ASCP), have completed a CLT/MLT program accredited by NAACLS, and have an associate degree are not required to take challenge examinations.  Challenge examinations must be passed with a grade of 70% or better for credit to be earned. For detailed information about eligible courses, fees, schedules, and procedures, contact the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences.

Placement Examinations

Individuals who have certification from NCA or ASCP as a CLT or MLT, have graduated from an accredited CLT/ MLT program with an associate degree and are entering the senior year are given placement examinations to determine areas of discipline strengths and weaknesses.

Practicum Assignments

Clinical practicums aim to provide comprehensive exposure to a wide variety of technology.  Primary site assignment is made to provide the student with a breadth of experiences that encompass all major content areas.  Assignment to clinical affiliates for practicum courses is based on availability of positions at the affiliate sites.  Practicum courses typically begin in the spring semester and are completed during the summer semester.

All students are expected to complete at least one practicum at an affiliate located outside of San Antonio. If a student declines to go to an assigned affiliate, this will result in a loss of the student’s practicum position and possible delay of graduation. Students who have special needs and request specific considerations for practicum assignments must put the request in writing to the department chair at least one semester before the practicum begins. The chair will take the request to the faculty who will approve or disapprove the request.

Program Costs

In addition to required tuition and fees, there are costs for textbooks, scrubs, and equipment. The full-time clinical fieldwork experiences included in the curriculum may require that students locate outside of San Antonio for the duration of the rotations. Fieldwork expenses will vary according to individual arrangements depending on the cost of travel, temporary housing, maintenance of local accommodations, etc. Students are encouraged to budget for major expenditures that could be associated with these assignments.  Detailed information about program costs can be found on the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences website.

Transfer of Credits

Agreements for transferable coursework exist with some area colleges and universities. Students should contact the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences or the biology advisor at their institution to determine if such an agreement exists with their school.

For additional information, see the policies and procedures in the School of Health Professions section of this Catalog.

Courses

CLSC 3000. Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 2 Credit Hours.

This Web-based course is an overview of the clinical laboratory profession. There are three general areas of study. The first is information on the profession including history, educational requirements, job responsibilities and opportunities, as well as the structure and role of the clinical laboratory in medicine. The second is an introduction to medical terminology using an overview of the body systems. Examples of the use of laboratory tests to detect pathologies in these systems are included. The third area is quality assurance. Enrollment is open to laboratory science students at other universities both in state and out of state. Texas residents and non-residents living in Texas pay applicable tuition and fees of the Health Science Center.

CLSC 3001. Phlebotomy Practicum. 0.5 Credit Hours.

Under the direction and supervision of a clinical instructor in a hospital or outpatient facility, the student will be given the opportunity to gain experience and expertise in phlebotomy procedures. This practicum may be taken anytime after the student has been accepted into the program. Positions will be based on the availability of sites. Students must arrange this practicum with the education coordinator before enrolling. This practicum must be completed before beginning clinical practicums in the senior year.

CLSC 3010. Body Fluids. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a study of selected body fluids including urine, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, and synovial fluid. Renal physiology and the physical and chemical properties of urine and cellular elements of the urine in healthy and diseased states are studied. The formation and function of cerebrospinal fluid and amniotic fluid will be discussed. The anatomy and physiology of pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial cavities will be presented. Attention is given to the cellular and formed elements found in these body fluids. In addition, this course includes the performance of various laboratory procedures utilized in the analysis of each of these fluids. Case studies will be used to emphasize the changes in laboratory results associated with various disease states. Principles and applications of quality control procedures are practiced.

CLSC 3011. Quality Assurance in the Clinical Laboratory. 1 Credit Hour.

This course presents the principles, statistics, and applications of quality assurance as it pertains to the clinical laboratory. The course will emphasize the statistics that are needed to evaluate a quality control system, the rules that are necessary for interpreting the quality control results, and the role of quality control in a quality assurance program. The impact of federal and state regulatory agencies on the clinical laboratory and its quality assurance program will be discussed. A large part of this course is via computer-assisted instruction.

CLSC 3020. Special Topics in Clinical Immunology. 1-2 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed a course that included clinical immunology/serology at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected immunology/serology topics that may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. Prerequisites: proficiency exam, permission from course director.

CLSC 3022. Special Topics in Body Fluids. 1-2 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed a course that included urinalysis and other body fluids at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected body fluids topics that may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. A proficiency exam and permission from course director are required.

CLSC 3033. Medical Microbiology. 3 Credit Hours.

This is a comprehensive study of medically important microorganisms including their composition, morphology, and growth requirements. Methods for identification including biochemical reactions of significant pathogens and their role in infectious disease will be stressed.

CLSC 3034. Medical Microbiology Lab. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a laboratory course emphasizing diagnostic clinical microbiology. Examination of samples from different body sites provides students the opportunity to recognize and identify organisms that comprise the normal flora and those that are potential pathogens. This course includes conventional and rapid biochemical methods for detection and identification of significant organisms. Principles and application of quality control procedures are practiced. Corequisites: CLSC 3033.

CLSC 3035. Special Topics in Medical Microbiology. 1-5 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed a medical microbiology course at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected medical microbiology topics that may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. Proficiency exam and permission from course director are required.

CLSC 3040. Special Topics in Microbiology. 2.5 Credit Hours.

This lecture and laboratory course will focus on the transmission, pathophysiology, clinical sites of infection, clinical presentation, life cycles, and identification of infrequently isolated bacterial pathogens, anaerobes, mycobacteria, viruses, parasites and fungal agents. Specimen collection techniques and methods of processing specimens for each group of organisms will be included. Laboratory sessions will focus on microscopic identification as well as classic and rapid methods of detection and identification of these etiologic agents. Prerequisites: CLSC 3033 and CLSC 3034.

CLSC 3051. Hematology. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is a study of the normal production, maturation, and function of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. Common disorders involving such cells will be discussed with emphasis on the pathogenic mechanisms. Hematologic laboratory tests and their correlations with disease states will also be examined. Normal hemostasis will be considered including pertinent laboratory tests used in diagnosis of coagulation problems.

CLSC 3052. Hematology Laboratory. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a clinical laboratory course emphasizing manual and semi-automated cell counting techniques and other basic hematologic tests. Time is devoted to the examination of normal and abnormal blood smears with emphasis on identification of cells and their relationships to various disease processes. An introduction to quality control methods in the hematology laboratory will also be included. Corequisites: CLSC 3051.

CLSC 3060. Immunohematology. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a study of the major blood groups of humans including the red cell antigen systems, alloantibodies, and non-immune stimulated antibodies. The relationship of blood group systems to compatibility testing, transfusion reactions, and hemolytic disease of the newborn will be discussed.

CLSC 3063. Special Topics in Immunohematology. 1-4 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed an immunohematology course at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected immunohematology topics which may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. A proficiency exam and permission from course director are required.

CLSC 3064. Immunohematology Laboratory. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a laboratory course emphasizing basic bloodbanking techniques including blood typing, identification of alloantibodies, and resolution of typing discrepancies. Techniques used in resolution of compatibility testing, investigation of transfusion reactions, and hemolytic disease of the newborn are practiced. Principles and applications of quality control are introduced. Corequisites: CLSC 3060.

CLSC 3065. Clinical Immunology. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will discuss the principles of innate and acquired immunity. Emphasis will be placed on the cell-mediated immune response and humoral immune response to immunogens. The cells of either response, their development, and their role in the specific immune response will be discussed. Soluble mediators of the immune response will be covered including immunoglobulins, cytokines, and complement. Finally, disorders of impaired immune function and infectious diseases will be discussed including autoimmunity, hypersensitivity, transplantation and tumor immunology, immunodeficiency, syphilis, infectious mononucleosis, etc. Laboratory testing for these disorders will be described.

CLSC 3070. Diagnostic Immunology Lecture. 1.5 Credit Hour.

This didactic course presents the principles and applications of immunology as it pertains to diagnosis of disease states. The course will cover methods to detect infectious as well as autoimmune diseases using immunologic technologies such as immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassays, and flow cytometry. Correlation of the laboratory results with the disease states will be emphasized. Clinical applications of flow cytometry, histocompatibility testing, serology, and immunochemistry assays will be presented. Immmunology is required.

CLSC 3071. Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory. 0.5 Credit Hours.

This laboratory course will offer the opportunity for students to perform immunologic procedures commonly used in the diagnosis of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Principles and applications of quality control procedures are practiced.

CLSC 3072. Molecular and Immunological Diagnosis. 4 Credit Hours.

This didactic course presents the principles of molecular biology and an in-depth review of immunology. Molecular and immunological techniques such as PCR, western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunochemistry assays will be discussed with an emphasis on the diagnosis of disease states. Clinical applications in forensics, paternity testing, diagnosis of infectious disease states, inherited conditions and neoplasms will be presented.

CLSC 3073. Molecular and Immunologic Diagnostic Lab. 1 Credit Hour.

This laboratory course will offer the opportunity for students to perform both molecular and immunologic techniques. Students will perform molecular diagnostic techniques such as PCR and gel electrophoresis that are used in the investigation of inherited conditions and neoplasms and become familiar with potential sources of error. Students will also perform immunologic procedures commonly used in the diagnosis of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Principles and applications of quality control procedures are practiced. Corequisites: CLSC 3072.

CLSC 3081. Clinical Chemistry. 2.5 Credit Hours.

The study of carbohydrates, enzymes, proteins and other chemicals routinely analyzed in clinical chemistry laboratories. Emphasis is placed upon principles of testing, methods of analysis, data interpretation, and clinical significance of results. Laboratory mathematics, quality control, safety, and instrumentation also are topics covered.

CLSC 3082. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory. 1.5 Credit Hour.

This is a laboratory course emphasizing biochemical analysis of body fluids utilizing manual procedures and semi-automated instrumentation. Students are given the opportunity to develop motor skills and organizational techniques in biochemical procedures. Principles and applications of quality control procedures are practiced. Corequisites: CLSC 3081.

CLSC 3083. Special Topics in Clinical Chemistry. 1-4 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed a clinical chemistry course at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected clinical chemistry topics that may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. A proficiency exam and permission from course director are required.

CLSC 3085. Principles of Biochemistry. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is a discussion of the basic biomedical processes that occur in the human body. Topics that will be covered include the molecular basis of life, molecular structure, bioenergetics, enzymes, and metabolism.

CLSC 4006. Professional Issues. 1 Credit Hour.

This interdisciplinary course will provide an overview of professional and ethical issues facing allied health professionals. Topics to be discussed include responsibilities of the health care practitioner, life and death decisions, patient confidentiality, substance abuse, whistle blowing, and informed consent. Ethics in research and other critical issues related to health care problems will also be addressed. Collaborative activities and simulated cases will be used to enhance discussion among students.

CLSC 4020. Issues in Health Care. 1-3.5 Credit Hours.

This course is a study of selected topics in health care. Consent of instructor is required.

CLSC 4033. Advanced Medical Microbiology. 2 Credit Hours.

This course will discuss etiology of infectious diseases in different body sites. Laboratory identification of suspected etiologic agents, using conventional methods, will be emphasized. Recent developments in microbiology and new rapid methods in the identification of bacterial agents of infectious disease will also be presented. One section of this course is in a distance-learning format offered via the Web. Students wanting to enroll in the Web section must receive permission from the instructor.

CLSC 4035. Introduction to Molecular Diagnostics. 1.5 Credit Hour.

This course is a study of recombinant DNA concepts and technology. Applications of this technology in diagnosis and therapy of disease is emphasized. The course is a combination of lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites include genetics and junior CLSC coursework. One section of this course is in a distance-learning format offered via the Web. Students wanting to enroll in the Web section must receive permission from the instructor.

CLSC 4037. Microbiology Practicum. 4 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in the hospital setting, the student is introduced to the functional roles of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Emphasis is on the practical application of microbiological principles in the areas of bacteriology, parasitology, mycology, and mycobacteriology. Students have the opportunity to gain experience in the isolation and identification of both indigenous microflora and potential disease producing organisms of man. Concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) are emphasized.

CLSC 4038. Microbiology Categorical Practicum. 10 Credit Hours.

Under the direction and supervision of a clinical instructor in the clinical microbiology lab, the student is introduced to the functional roles of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Students will have the opportunity to develop proficiency in the areas of bacteriology, parasitology, mycology, mycobacteriology, immunology, and virology. A period of time will be devoted to allow the student to gain experience in performing microbiological studies in each of these areas.

CLSC 4040. Human Genetics. 2 Credit Hours.

An advanced course which provides the student an opportunity to study the cell cycle, oogenesis, spermatogenesis, Mendelian inheritance, polygenic inheritance, population genetics, medical genetics, clinical cytogenetics, and basic molecular techniques. The course is self-paced requiring approximately 2 hours per week. Prerequisites: Admission to Cytogenetics Program or consent of instructor.

CLSC 4041. Clinical Cytogenetics. 4 Credit Hours.

This is an advanced lecture course covering theories, concepts, and techniques applicable to the practice of clinical cytogenetics. Topics include mitotic and meiotic cell cycles with emphasis on errors and manipulations, chromosome structure, mechanisms of chromosome abnormality formation, cytogenetics syndromers, inheritance patterns, cancer genetics, instability syndromes, clinical correlation of chromosome abnormalities, microscopy, computer imaging, cell culture, analysis, ISCN, pedigree construction, and other current genetic issues. Prerequisites: CLSC 4040 or consent of instructor.

CLSC 4042. Hematology for the Geneticist. 1 Credit Hour.

This is an advanced study of the normal production, maturation and function of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. The pathogenic mechanisms as well as the peripheral blood and bone marrow findings in relation to leukocyte disorders will be covered. Study of the correlation of cytogenetic abnormalities to specific disorders will be emphasized. Prerequisites: concurrent enrollment in CLSC 4041 or consent of the instructor.

CLSC 4043. Cytogenetics Techniques. 4 Credit Hours.

This is an advanced laboratory course designed to cover all aspects of cytogenetic laboratory practice including specimen evaluation, culture initiation, culture maintenance, harvesting, slidemaking, staining and banding techniques (conventional, GTG, QFQ, CBG, AgNOR, DA/DAPI, SCE, and FISH), banding pattern recognition, microscopic analysis, computer imaging, computer-assisted karyotyping and ISCN. Instrumentation, solution preparation, laboratory math, quality control, and regulatory issues will be emphasized. Prerequisites: CLSC 4041 or consent of the instructor.

CLSC 4044. Current Topics in Genetics. 1 Credit Hour.

This is an advanced seminar course that provides the student an opportunity to acquire knowledge of the latest developments in the field of human genetics with emphasis on the structure, behavior, and function of chromosomes as related to human diseases. Discussion sessions follow seminar presentation of critical literature reviews of a specific topic, current journal articles, or of individual research. Presenters will be drawn from the cytogenetics community of the Health Science Center and surrounding area. Each student is required to make a short presentation on a topic of interest selected with the aid of the coordinator. Prerequisites: CLSC 4041 or concurrent enrollment.

CLSC 4045. Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratory 1. 5 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to extend their knowledge of principles and techniques of clinical cytogenetics which were presented in the didactic portion of the curriculum. The student will have the opportunity to gain experience with a wide variety of procedures which include culturing, harvesting, slide preparation, staining, and analyzing metaphases, with emphasis on the processing of peripheral blood samples. Clinical correlations of the chromosomal findings are included. Grades are based on laboratory performance and results achieved on written and/or practical examinations conducted at the particular clinical affiliate to which the student is assigned. Prerequisites: CLSC 4041, CLSC 4043, and CLSC 4042.

CLSC 4046. Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratory 2. 5 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to extend their knowledge of principles and techniques of clinical cytogenetics which were presented in the didactic portion of the curriculum. The student will have the opportunity to gain experience with a wide variety of procedures which include culturing, harvesting, slide preparation, staining, and analyzing metaphases, with emphasis on the processing of amniotic fluid and chorionic villi samples. Clinical correlations of the chromosomal findings are included. Grades are based on laboratory performance and results achieved on written and/or practical examinations conducted at the particular clinical affiliate to which the student is assigned. Prerequisites: CLSC 4045.

CLSC 4047. Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratory 3. 5 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to extend their knowledge of principles and techniques of clinical cytogenetics that were presented in the didactic portion of the curriculum. The student will have the opportunity to gain experience with a wide variety of procedures which include culturing, harvesting, slide preparation, staining, and analyzing metaphases, with emphasis on the processing of bone marrow and solid tumor samples. Clinical correlations of the chromosomal findings are included. Grades are based on laboratory performance and results achieved on written and/or practical examinations conducted at the particular clinical affiliate to which the student is assigned. Prerequisites: CLSC 4046.

CLSC 4048. Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratory 4. 5 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to extend their knowledge of principles and techniques of clinical cytogenetics that were presented in the didactic portion of the curriculum. The student will have the opportunity to gain experience with a wide variety of procedures which include culturing, harvesting, slide preparation, staining, and analyzing metaphases, with emphasis on quality control, applications of FISH, molecular techniques and computer imaging. Clinical correlations of the chromosomal findings are included. Grades are based on laboratory performance and results achieved on written and/or practical examinations conducted at the particular clinical affiliate to which the student is assigned. Prerequisites: CLSC 4047.

CLSC 4049. Cytogenetics Lab Practices. 1.5 Credit Hour.

An exploration of problem-solving processes and strategies for resolving difficult cases is the focus of this course. Students will be presented with the opportunity to integrate previously presented topics with experiences gained from clinical practicums. A thorough review of basic principles as applied in the clinical laboratory is included. Prerequisites: CLSC 4048 or consent of instructor.

CLSC 4050. Research In Cytogenetics. 1-5 Credit Hours.

This is an advanced course that provides the student an opportunity to apply scientific method to a clinical laboratory research problem, demonstrate a systematic application of hypothesis formation, and decision-making through research design principles. Course evaluation is based upon performance on the term project. Requires consent of Program Director and Instructor. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: CLSC 4047.

CLSC 4053. Advanced Hematology. 2 Credit Hours.

Using problem-based learning approach, this advanced course presents the pathogenic mechanisms of disorders involving erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and coagulation factors. The methodology for detection of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs is examined. The peripheral blood and bone marrow findings in relation to various hematopoietic disease processes will be emphasized. Abnormalities of hemostatic mechanisms and their correlation with laboratory tests will be presented.

CLSC 4054. Advanced Hematology/Web-Based. 2 Credit Hours.

This advanced course in hematology/hemostasis presents the pathogenic mechanisms of disorders involving erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and coagulation factors. The methodology for detection of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs is examined with emphasis on the interpretation of the findings and determination of appropriate reflex testing. Morphologic changes in the peripheral blood and bone marrow will be emphasized. This is a Web-based course. Enrollment is open to clinical laboratory technicians/medical laboratory technicians or military-trained laboratory personnel who have been accepted into the CLS program or by special permission from the course director.

CLSC 4055. Advanced Immunohematology. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a lecture course which uses case studies to emphasize theory and principles and develop problem solving skills. Major areas of focus include collection, processing and therapeutic use of blood components; investigation of autoantibodies and alloantibodies as detected in hemolytic disease of newborns, transfusion reactions, and autoimmune hemolytic anemias. The HLA system and applications in transplantation and paternity testing will also be discussed. One section of this course is in a distance-learning format offered via the Web. Students wanting to enroll in the Web section must receive permission from the instructor.

CLSC 4057. Hematology Practicum. 4 Credit Hours.

Under the direction and supervision of a clinical instructor, the student will have the opportunity to gain expertise and confidence working in the clinical hematology section of the hospital laboratory. Students will be allowed to perform hematologic tests as well as "troubleshoot" automated cell counters. An opportunity to gain proficiency in morphologic evaluation of normal and abnormal cellular morphology, including peripheral blood and bone marrow examination, will be offered. The student will be introduced to the technology of flow cytometry and the immunologic study of disease states. Knowledge of internal and external quality control methods in the hematology laboratory will be emphasized. Students will also have the opportunity to learn the principles of interfacing laboratory instrumentation with the laboratory information system as well as the role of the LIS in test ordering, specimen processing, and reporting results.

CLSC 4058. Hematology Categorical Practicum. 6 Credit Hours.

Under the direction and supervision of a clinical instructor, the student will have the opportunity to gain expertise working in the clinical hematology laboratory. Students will perform routine and special hematologic procedures, "troubleshoot" automated cell counters, and gain proficiency in morphologic evaluation of normal and abnormal cellular morphology, including peripheral blood and bone marrow examination. The student will be introduced to the technology of flow cytometry and immunologic study of disease states. In addition, the student will perform routine and special coagulation procedures and evaluate body fluids. Internal and external quality control methods in the hematology/coagulation laboratory will be emphasized. Phlebotomy techniques also will be practiced.

CLSC 4067. Immunohematology Practicum. 4 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in the hospital setting, the student will be given the opportunity to perform routine blood grouping and typing, compatibility testing, and donor unit processing. Experience in solving antibody problems, HLA testing, and preparing components will also be offered. Quality assurance procedures are practiced on a daily basis.

CLSC 4068. Immunohematology Categorical Practicum. 6 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical laboratory instructor, the student will have the opportunity to gain expertise in the various facets of clinical immunohematology. Areas emphasized include donor collection and processing, component preparation, routine grouping and typing, and compatibility testing. Students will have the opportunity to perform serologic testing for transfusion-transmitted disease. In addition, they will solve complex antibody problems and typing discrepancies using specialized techniques such as enzyme treatment, elution, and autoabsorption. Students will be required to perform HLA typing and investigate suspected cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn and transfusion reactions. Quality control procedures and records management for each area will be emphasized.

CLSC 4070. Immunology Practicum. 2 Credit Hours.

The student will be introduced to the technology of flow cytometry and the immunologic study of disease states. In the immunology/serology laboratory, the student will be required to perform routine testing of antigen/antibody reactions to help in the diagnosis of certain disease states.

CLSC 4083. Advanced Clinical Chemistry. 3 Credit Hours.

This is an advanced clinical lecture course emphasizing abnormalities in liver, cardiac, renal, and endocrine systems and their effect on chemical blood constituents. The theories and use of complex biochemical methodologies including immunochemical assays, chromatography, and electrophoresis also will be discussed. One section of this course is in a distance-learning format offered via the Web. Students wanting to enroll in the Web section must receive permission from the instructor.

CLSC 4087. Chemistry Practicum. 4 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in the hospital setting, the student is introduced to the delivery of health care as it relates to the chemistry diagnostic laboratory. The student has the opportunity to gain experience in toxicology, electrophoresis, immunochemical assays, urinalysis, and special chemistry procedures including neonatal intensive care testing. The student will be given the opportunity to operate modern, state-of-the-art clinical laboratory equipment. Motor skills as well as interpretive skills will be stressed. Knowledge of internal and external quality control methods in the clinical chemistry laboratory will be emphasized.

CLSC 4088. Clinical Chemistry Categorical Practicum. 6 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to gain expertise and confidence working with automated clinical analyzers and performing esoteric clinical chemistry analyses. The student will have the opportunity to operate state-of-the-art, high-volume chemical analyzers, to observe preventive maintenance and troubleshooting procedures, and to gain firsthand experience with the recording and evaluation of quality control results. The student will perform highly specialized chemical analyses that may include serum protein electrophoresis, lipoprotein electrophoresis, toxicology screens, immunochemical assays, lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio for assessment of fetal lung maturity, blood gas analyses, and blood gas instrument troubleshooting procedures. The ability to organize work in a multitask environment will be emphasized. The student will be encouraged to present interesting and unusual case studies in an academic environment.

CLSC 4090. Management for Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to provide the student with the opportunity to develop entry-level management and supervisory skills. Topics include principles of communication; group dynamics; leadership styles; interviewing; planning; financial analysis; and policies, procedures, and regulations. Developing and designing presentations; learning principles, objectives and use of audiovisual aids; and design and evaluation of research projects are discussed. Other timely topics in health care may be considered. This is a Web-based course and enrollment is open to clinical laboratory technicians or military-trained personnel who have been accepted into the CLS program, or by special permission from the course director.

CLSC 4091. Independent Study. 1-12 Credit Hours.

A plan of study is determined by the supervising faculty. The participating student and supervising faculty develop the course requirements and forms of evaluation. Credit hours are determined by the scope of the project.

CLSC 4095. Management. 2.5 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to present the principle of group dynamics, human resources management, and financial analysis to students in laboratory medicine. Topics include leadership style, staffing, and laboratory information systems (data management, analysis, selection). Writing resumes and laboratory procedures and developing job performance criteria are included. Interviewing techniques and performance evaluations are practiced. Current issues in managed care including outcomes assessment, evidence-based medicine, infection control, CLIA regulations, point of care testing, onsite surveys of the laboratory and medical necessity are discussed.

CLSC 4101. Honors CLS Course. 2.5-5 Credit Hours.

This is an elective course for students who want to study a CLS discipline in more depth or breadth, participate in a research project, study a professional issue, or work on a laboratory-related problem. This course is open only to students who have the permission of the Department Chair, are in good standing in the CLS Program, have a minimum GPA of 2.5, and a letter of recommendation from a CLS faculty member. The student is responsible for selecting an area of interest and securing the approval of a faculty mentor who will supervise the student's work.

CLSC 4102. Honors CLS Practicum. 1-5 Credit Hours.

This elective course is for students who are interested in completing clinical practicums in specialized areas not included in the required clinical practicums. This may include laboratory management, molecular diagnostics, virology, etc. Certified clinical laboratory technicians who have extensive experience in the laboratory and who have completed the objectives of required practicums may choose to enroll in this practicum. A special clinical experience in the South Texas Environmental Education and Research (STEER) Program may be available to select students. This program is open to sophomores and juniors as well as seniors. The STEER Program is five weeks long and takes place in Laredo, Texas. Housing is provided. To enroll in this course, students must have the permission of the Department Chair, a minimum 2.5 GPA, and letters of recommendation from two faculty members. The student must be in good standing in all coursework. In addition, to enroll in the STEER Program, students must apply, be accepted, and complete a one-page statement of interest.

CLSC 4190. Research. 1 Credit Hour.

This course is an introduction to the components of medical research, the different types of clinical research trials, the purpose of the institutional review board and the informed consent procedure. Characteristics of the ethical researcher will be described. An overview of appropriate research design and data collection, sample size determination, and statistical evaluation of the result s will be discussed. Students will have the opportunity to develop group research projects, write a proposal, develop a PowerPoint presentation, and present the proposal to faculty and students.

CLSC 5007. Toxicology Practicum. 5 Credit Hours.

This is a one-semester rotation through different types of toxicology laboratories including medical examiners, clinical, and drug testing. Practicums will be supervised by faculty.

CLSC 5014. Principles and Applications in Analytical Toxicology. 5.5 Credit Hours.

This course will concentrate on major topical areas of toxicology including: mechanisms of toxicity including mutagenicity, teratogenicity, and carcinogenicity; mechanisms of systemic toxicity and damage to specific organ systems; chemical and biochemical analytical techniques including non-instrumental methods such as microdiffusion and instrumental methods such as HPLC and GC/MS; and toxicology of toxins, toxicants, narcotics, organic solvents, and other classes of materials. Case studies will be used to develop skills in the application of concepts and principles.

CLSC 5017. Toxicology Seminar. 1 Credit Hour.

This course includes formal exchange of scientific information and ideas through presentations from recent scientific literature and from faculty and student research.

CLSC 5018. Medical and Forensic Toxicology. 5.5 Credit Hours.

This course includes an introduction to types and uses of evidence, investigations, and the legal requirements in dealing with physical evidence. Areas such as clinical toxicology, forensic toxicology, and forensic pathology will be included. Using a case-study format, the course will also concentrate on specific topics within toxicology including natural toxins, drugs of abuse, psychotropic agents, industrial chemical disasters, and poison management. Requirements for toxicology laboratory certification and design will be included. Selected topics may include laboratory demonstration.

CLSC 5020. Applied Toxicology. 2 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to complement courses CLSC 5014 and CSLC 5018. Under supervision of the program director and toxicologists from various areas of the discipline, the student will apply her/his knowledge of toxicology and forensic science to solving cases in emergency and forensic cases. Permission is required.

CLSC 5040. Laboratory Medicine. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is offered to students in the Physician Assistant Studies Program at the Health Science Center. The course is designed to provide the student with the opportunity to gain information on the profession of CLS including history and job characteristics. Relationships between abnormal physiology and laboratory testing will be emphasized. Basic lab and math statistics will be taught. Part of the course is Web-based.

CLSC 5041. Laboratory Medicine Lab. 1 Credit Hour.

This course is offered to students in the Physician Assistant Studies Program. This is a laboratory course that provides the student with hands-on experience in performing common physician office laboratory procedures. Case studies are used to help students interpret and use laboratory test results.

CLSC 5085. Organ System Biochemistry. 3 Credit Hours.

This course takes an organ systems approach to the biochemical processes that occur in the human body. The course will cover the major biochemical mechanisms that operate in all human tissues, the characteristic biochemical processes that occur in each major organ system, and the biochemical interrelationship between the major organ systems. Permission is required.

CLSC 5090. Independent Study In Clinical Laboratory Studies. 1-4 Credit Hours.

This course allows for in-depth study in a specific topic area. Topics and method of study are agreed upon by instructor and student. The course may be repeated for credit when topics vary.

CLSC 6096. Capstone Project In Toxicology. 4 Credit Hours.

This is a focused well-referenced research project on current issues in any area of toxicology, including but not limited to Clinical (emergency toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring) and postmortem forensic toxicology. The project shall focus on the theory, analysis and current practices and issues and may involve some laboratory work. The written document shall be between 10,000-15,000 words long and shall be accompanied by an oral presentation.

CLSC 6097. Research. 3 Credit Hours.

This course consists of supervised research under direction of faculty.

CLSC 6098. Thesis. 3 Credit Hours.

Instruction in the preparation of a thesis from the results of the research performed in CLSC 6097. Registration is required for at least one term for the MS candidate enrolled in CLSC 6097. Admission to candidacy for the Master of Science degree is required.