Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Clinical laboratory scientists (or medical laboratory scientists) are laboratory practitioners who analyze blood, urine, tissue, or other body specimens to provide critical, objective data for disease diagnosis, treatment planning, and preventative health care. 

The Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences (CLS) programs include:

  • Bachelor of Science in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
  • Post-Baccalaureate Certificates in CLS with specializations in Generalist, Clinical Chemistry, Hematology, Immunohematology, and Microbiology
  • Master of Science in Toxicology

Medical Laboratory Technicians (MLT) who have completed a MLT program accredited by NAACLS, have earned an associate’s degree, and who are certified as a MLT by the Board of Certification (BOC) of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP) can be accepted into the Bachelor of Science degree program at the Health Science Center as an "Advanced Standing" CLS student. Core curriculum and all required science and math courses must be completed before advancing to the senior year. Some coursework may be offered via distance learning.

The CLS programs are accredited by The National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Laboratory Sciences (NAACLS), 5600 N. River Road, Suite 720, Rosemont, IL 60018-5119; (773) 714-8880; e-mail info@naacls.org. Web site: http://www.naacls.org. Graduates of the CLS programs are eligible to take the national certification examinations given by the Board of Certification (BOC) of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), 33 West Monroe St., Suite 1600, Chicago, IL, 60603, 1-800-267-2727.

Graduates of the CLS programs may find employment opportunities in hospital laboratories as well as private, reference, research, industrial, biotechnology, veterinary, public health, and pharmaceutical laboratories. With advanced education and experience, graduates have additional career options, including research, teaching, and management. Graduates of the Master’s program are employed in toxicology laboratories in medical examiners offices and in drug enforcement administration.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Admissions Requirements for the Bachelor of Science in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

The application deadline starting in the fall 2016 entry (August) into the CLS programs is June 15. All application materials, the application fee, official transcripts, and all supporting documents must be received by the Office of the University Registrar by the deadline. Applicants who are enrolled in college courses at the time of application should submit an official transcript showing courses in progress. An official, updated transcript must be submitted upon completion of the courses.

Bachelor of Science in CLS applicants must complete the Texas Core Curriculum (42 hours)  and prerequisite courses with a grade of "C" or better. Certain prerequisite courses will apply towards meeting the Texas Core requirements as indicated below(*):

Texas Core Curriculum Requirement                                                                               

  • English Composition I & II  (6 semester credit hours)
  • College Algebra or higher (3 semester credit hours)
  • Natural Sciences (BIOL, CHEM, PHYS or other natural science)  (12 semester credit hours)
  • Humanities
    • Any philosophy, language, humanities, or English literature course (3 semester credit hours)
  • Visual and Performing Arts
    • Any arts, drama, or music course (3 semester credit hours)
  • U.S. History I and U.S. History II (6 semester credit hours)
  • Texas State & Local Government & American Government (6 semester credit hours)
  • Any psychology or sociology course (3 semester credit hours)

All applicants must complete the program prerequisites listed below and no grade less than "C" will be accepted; ALL science courses must be designated for science majors.

Program Prerequisite Requirement                                                                                   

  • General Chemistry I with lab (4 semester credit hours)
  • General Chemistry II with lab  (4 semester credit hours)
  • Biology I with lab (4 semester credit hours)
  • Biology II  (3 semester credit hours)
  • Microbiology with lab (for science majors) (4 semester credit hours)
  • General Physiology or Human Physiology (upper division) (3 semester credit hours)
  • Genetics (3 semester credit hours)
  • Organic Chemistry I with lab (4 semester credit hours)
  • Precalculus (3 semester credit hours)
  • Statistics (math, science or psychology)  (3 semester credit hours)

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Admissions Requirements for the Post - Baccalaureate Certificate in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

Post-Baccalaureate Certificate in CLS applicants must complete a bachelor’s degree in biology, chemistry, or other closely related field that includes all math and science requirements listed below.

All applicants must complete the program prerequisites listed below and no grade less than "C" will be accepted; ALL science courses must be designated for science majors.

 Program Prerequisite Requirement                                                                             

  • Precalculus (3 semester credit hours)
  • General Chemistry I with lab  (4 semester credit hours)
  • General Chemistry II with lab  (4 semester credit hours)
  • Biology I with lab (4 semester credit hours)
  • Biology II  (3 semester credit hours)
  • Microbiology with lab (for science majors)  (4 semester credit hours)
  • General Physiology or Human Physiology (upper division)  (3 semester credit hours)
  • Genetics  (3 semester credit hours)
  • Organic Chemistry I with lab  (4 semester credit hours)
  • Statistics (math, science or psychology)  (3 semester credit hours)

Additional CLS program requirements:

  • Overall GPA of 2.5 (on a 4.0 scale)
  • Overall Science GPA of 2.5 (on a 4.0 scale)
  • Completion of the Texas Common Application
  • Payment of the non-refundable application fee
  • Submission of official transcripts from each college and university currently or previously attended. Applicants who are enrolled in college courses at the time of application should submit an official transcript showing courses in progress. An updated transcript must be submitted upon completion of the courses. Note: Transfer credits indicated on another school’s transcript are not accepted in lieu of submitting the original institution record for that coursework. Transcripts from institutions outside the United States must be submitted in the original language and must be accompanied by a NACES Members evaluation agency English translation (course by course).
  • Submission of two Reference Forms completed by former instructors (preferably science instructors) or employers
  • Interview with CLS faculty
  • International Applicants only: Submit Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) scores; minimum scores 560 (paper) or 68 (Internet).

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Degree Requirements

Bachelor of Science in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

The Bachelor of Science in Clinical Laboratory Sciences degree program is a four-year program that consists of a minimum of 126 semester credit hours.  The third and fourth year of the program is comprised of clinical laboratory science courses and clinical practicums that are completed at the Health Science Center. The courses listed below constitute the professional curriculum for the Bachelor of Science degree in Clinical Laboratory Science.

Individualized degree plans are created for each student admitted to the program in consultation with the program director.

Post-Baccalaureate Certificates in Clinical Laboratory Sciences

The post-baccalaureate certificate programs are designed for students who hold a bachelor’s degree from a regionally accredited college or university and have met all science and math program requirements prior to acceptance into the program. Certificates are available in clinical laboratory science (generalist), clinical chemistry, hematology, immunohematology and microbiology.

The curriculum includes professional clinical laboratory sciences coursework completed at the Health Science Center. The curriculum requires approximately 24 months.  Individuals holding a current certification in a clinical laboratory science discipline and seeking to obtain additional certification may petition for an exemption from didactic courses taken within the last seven years and for which they can demonstrate content equivalency. Students may enroll in one or more categorical certificate programs.  Curricula for these programs may be completed in 24 months.

Degree- and certificate-seeking students must complete all courses listed as required core curriculum, program requirements, and professional courses in order to graduate.  The minimum grade point average required for graduation from the Bachelor of Science and certificate programs is 2.0.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Sample Plans of Study

Bachelor of Science in CLS Curriculum - Fall 2015

CLSC 3000Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Sciences2
CLSC 3001Phlebotomy Practicum0.5
CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3011Quality Assurance in the Clinical Laboratory1
CLSC 3033Medical Microbiology3
CLSC 3034Medical Microbiology Lab2
CLSC 3040Special Topics in Microbiology2.5
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3060Immunohematology2
CLSC 3064Immunohematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3065Clinical Immunology3
CLSC 3071Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory0.5
CLSC 3081Clinical Chemistry2.5
CLSC 3082Clinical Chemistry Laboratory1.5
CLSC 3085Principles of Biochemistry3
CLSC 4006Professional Issues1
CLSC 4033Advanced Medical Microbiology2
CLSC 4037Microbiology Practicum4
CLSC 4053Advanced Hematology2
CLSC 4055Advanced Immunohematology2
CLSC 4057Hematology Practicum4
CLSC 4067Immunohematology Practicum4
CLSC 4070Immunology Practicum2
CLSC 4083Advanced Clinical Chemistry3
CLSC 4087Chemistry Practicum4
CLSC 4095Management2.5
CLSC 4190Research1
Total Credit Hours64

 Post-Baccalaureate Certificates Curriculum - Fall 2015

CLSC 3000Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Sciences2
CLSC 3001Phlebotomy Practicum0.5
CLSC 3011Quality Assurance in the Clinical Laboratory1
CLSC 3065Clinical Immunology3
CLSC 3085Principles of Biochemistry3
CLSC 4006Professional Issues1
CLSC 4095Management2.5
CLSC 4190Research1
Total Credit Hours14

Additional Curriculum for CLS Post-Baccalaureate Certificate (Generalist) - Fall 2015

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3033Medical Microbiology3
CLSC 3034Medical Microbiology Lab2
CLSC 3040Special Topics in Microbiology2.5
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3060Immunohematology2
CLSC 3064Immunohematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3071Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory0.5
CLSC 3081Clinical Chemistry2.5
CLSC 3082Clinical Chemistry Laboratory1.5
CLSC 4033Advanced Medical Microbiology2
CLSC 4037Microbiology Practicum4
CLSC 4053Advanced Hematology2
CLSC 4055Advanced Immunohematology2
CLSC 4057Hematology Practicum4
CLSC 4067Immunohematology Practicum4
CLSC 4070Immunology Practicum2
CLSC 4083Advanced Clinical Chemistry3
CLSC 4087Chemistry Practicum4
Total Credit Hours50

Additional Curriculum for Clinical Chemistry Post-Baccalaureate Certificate - Fall 2015

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3081Clinical Chemistry2.5
CLSC 3082Clinical Chemistry Laboratory1.5
CLSC 4083Advanced Clinical Chemistry3
CLSC 4088Clinical Chemistry Categorical Practicum6
Total Credit Hours20

Additional Curriculum for Hematology Post-Baccalaureate Certificate - Fall 2015

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 4053Advanced Hematology2
CLSC 4058Hematology Categorical Practicum6
Total Credit Hours15

Additional Curriculum for Immunohematology Post-Baccalaureate Certificate - Fall 2015

CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3060Immunohematology2
CLSC 3064Immunohematology Laboratory2
CLSC 4055Advanced Immunohematology2
CLSC 4068Immunohematology Categorical Practicum6
Total Credit Hours17

Additional Curriculum for Microbiology Post-Baccalaureate Certificate - Fall 2015

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3033Medical Microbiology3
CLSC 3034Medical Microbiology Lab2
CLSC 3040Special Topics in Microbiology2.5
CLSC 3071Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory0.5
CLSC 4033Advanced Medical Microbiology2
CLSC 4038Microbiology Categorical Practicum10
Total Credit Hours22

Bachelor of Science in CLS Curriculum - Fall 2016

CLSC 3065Clinical Immunology3
CLSC 3071Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory1
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3011Quality Assurance in the Clinical Laboratory1
CLSC 3060Immunohematology2
CLSC 3064Immunohematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3082Clinical Chemistry Laboratory1.5
CLSC 3081Clinical Chemistry2.5
CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3033Medical Microbiology3
CLSC 3034Medical Microbiology Lab2
CLSC 3085Principles of Biochemistry3
CLSC 3040Special Topics in Microbiology2.5
CLSC 4006Professional Issues1
CLSC 4095Management2.5
CLSC 4070Immunology Practicum2
CLSC 4055Advanced Immunohematology2
CLSC 4053Advanced Hematology2
CLSC 4057Hematology Practicum4
CLSC 4190Research2
CLSC 4033Advanced Medical Microbiology2
CLSC 4037Microbiology Practicum4
CLSC 4067Immunohematology Practicum4
CLSC 4087Chemistry Practicum4
CLSC 4083Advanced Clinical Chemistry3
CLSC 4189CLS Senior Seminar1
Total Credit Hours64

Post-Baccalaureate Certificates Curriculum - Fall 2016

CLSC 3011Quality Assurance in the Clinical Laboratory1
CLSC 3065Clinical Immunology3
CLSC 3085Principles of Biochemistry3
CLSC 4006Professional Issues1
CLSC 4095Management2.5
CLSC 4190Research2
CLSC 4189CLS Senior Seminar1
Total Credit Hours13.5

Additional Curriculum for CLS Post-Baccalaureate Certificate (Generalist) - Fall 2016

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3033Medical Microbiology3
CLSC 3034Medical Microbiology Lab2
CLSC 3040Special Topics in Microbiology2.5
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3060Immunohematology2
CLSC 3064Immunohematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3071Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory1
CLSC 3081Clinical Chemistry2.5
CLSC 3082Clinical Chemistry Laboratory1.5
CLSC 4033Advanced Medical Microbiology2
CLSC 4037Microbiology Practicum4
CLSC 4053Advanced Hematology2
CLSC 4055Advanced Immunohematology2
CLSC 4057Hematology Practicum4
CLSC 4067Immunohematology Practicum4
CLSC 4070Immunology Practicum2
CLSC 4083Advanced Clinical Chemistry3
CLSC 4087Chemistry Practicum4
Total Credit Hours50.5

Additional Curriculum for Clinical Chemistry Post-Baccalaureate Certificate - Fall 2016

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3081Clinical Chemistry2.5
CLSC 3082Clinical Chemistry Laboratory1.5
CLSC 4083Advanced Clinical Chemistry3
CLSC 4088Clinical Chemistry Categorical Practicum6
Total Credit Hours20

Additional Curriculum for Hematology Post-Baccalaureate Certificate - Fall 2016

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 4053Advanced Hematology2
CLSC 4058Hematology Categorical Practicum6
Total Credit Hours15

Additional Curriculum for Immunohematology Post-Baccalaureate Certificate - Fall 2016

CLSC 3051Hematology3
CLSC 3052Hematology Laboratory2
CLSC 3060Immunohematology2
CLSC 3064Immunohematology Laboratory2
CLSC 4055Advanced Immunohematology2
CLSC 4068Immunohematology Categorical Practicum6
Total Credit Hours17

Additional Curriculum for Microbiology Post-Baccalaureate Certificate - Fall 2016

CLSC 3010Body Fluids2
CLSC 3033Medical Microbiology3
CLSC 3034Medical Microbiology Lab2
CLSC 3040Special Topics in Microbiology2.5
CLSC 3071Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory1
CLSC 4033Advanced Medical Microbiology2
CLSC 4038Microbiology Categorical Practicum10
Total Credit Hours22.5

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Objectives/Program Outcomes

Students graduating from a Department of Clinical Laboratory Science program must meet the essential function requirements of the academic program and profession. They will complete programs consisting of academic study and clinical laboratory experiences. The student will possess the skills and attributes necessary to perform as a professional before graduation from the program. These skills and attributes are known as essential functions and include the following:

Observation

The student will be able to:

  • Observe laboratory demonstrations in which laboratory procedures are performed on biological specimens (i.e. body fluids, culture materials, tissue sections, and cellular specimens).
  • Characterize the color, consistency, and clarity of biological specimens and reagents.
  • Characterize the macroscopic features used to distinguish bacterial and fungal cultures.
  • Use a clinical grade binocular microscope to discriminate among fine differences in structure and color (hue, shading, and intensity) in microscopic specimens.
  • Read and comprehend text, numbers, and graphs displayed in print, on audiovisual media and on a video monitor.

Mobility

The student will be able to:

  • Perform laboratory testing independently while adhering to existing laboratory safety standards.
  • Perform moderately taxing continuous physical work, often requiring prolonged sitting and/or standing, over several hours.
  • Travel to numerous clinical laboratory practicum sites.
  • Reach laboratory bench tops and shelves, patients lying in hospital beds or patients seated in specimen collection furniture.
  • Grasp, hold, transport, utilize specimens, reagents, hazardous chemicals, and equipment in a safe manner as needed to perform laboratory testing.
  • Obtain patient specimens in a timely, safe, and professional manner (e.g. perform phlebotomy).
  • Use laboratory equipment (e.g. pipettes, inoculating loops, test tubes) and instruments to perform laboratory procedures according to established laboratory guidelines.
  • Use a computer to operate laboratory instruments and to calculate, record, evaluate, and transmit laboratory information.
  • Troubleshoot and correct equipment malfunctions.
  • Handle all biological specimens using Standard Precautions as established by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines.

Communication

The student will be able to:

  • Read and understand technical and professional materials (i.e. textbooks, journal articles, handbooks, and instruction manuals).
  • Follow oral and written instructions independently.
  • Clearly instruct patients regarding specimen collection.
  • Demonstrate sensitivity, confidentiality and respect when speaking with or about patients or about patients’ data.
  • Communicate clearly, accurately and tactfully with faculty members, student colleagues, staff and other health care professionals orally and in a recorded format (writing, typing, graphics, or telecommunication). Oral communication includes the ability to ask and respond to formal and informal questions with confidence at an appropriate professional level. Written communication includes the ability to use correct grammar and spelling as well as the appropriate level of formality.

Intellect

The student will be able to:

  • Comprehend, measure, calculate, reason, integrate, analyze, evaluate, correlate, problem-solve and compare.
  • Recognize abnormal laboratory results (e.g. patient and QC) and take appropriate action.
  • Demonstrate critical-thinking and judgment skills appropriate to a given situation.

Behavior

The student will be able to:

  • Organize work and perform multiple tasks within given time constraints and under stressful conditions while maintaining the ability to communicate clearly.
  • Demonstrate flexibility and adapt to professional and technical change.
  • Recognize potentially hazardous situations and proceed safely to minimize risk to self and others.
  • Support and promote activities of colleagues and other health care professionals.
  • Accept and act on constructive criticism, critically evaluate self-performance, recognize and correct mistakes.
  • Demonstrate honesty, compassion, responsibility, reliability and ethical behavior.
  • Exercise independent judgment and accept responsibility for own work.

Clinical Laboratory Sciences Program Policies and Information

Advancement to the Senior Year

A student must have no grade lower than a C in required science and clinical laboratory sciences courses to begin the senior year and begin clinical practicums. In addition, a CLS student must file an Intent to Enroll in Clinical Practicum form, available from the department office at the end of the semester before practicums begin. Students who are ready for clinical practicums are placed based on availability of positions at the affiliate sites throughout South Texas. All students are expected to complete at least one practicum at an affiliate located outside of San Antonio. In the unlikely event that there are not enough sites available for the number of students ready to enter practicums, assignments will be made according to program policies. Students who must remediate a practicum will be assigned to an affiliate on a space-available basis.

Advisement and Schedule Planning

Applicants are encouraged to seek advisement from their college counselors or the Health Professions Office of Admissions and Special Programs at (866) 802-6288 (toll-free) or (210) 567-6220. Students who complete lower-division course work at another college or university are urged to seek advisement about coursework that will fulfill program requirements well in advance of applying to the Health Science Center. Students must be advised each semester before permission is given to enroll in professional courses. For students in any Clinical Laboratory Sciences program, sequencing and completion of specific courses are very important. 

Certification

Students who successfully complete a certificate or degree in Clinical Laboratory Sciences are eligible to take the national certification examinations given by the Board of Certification (BOC) of the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP). Awarding of the degree or certificate is not contingent on passing an external certification or licensing examination.

Credit by Examination

Students enrolled in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences baccalaureate or post-baccalaureate certificate programs may attempt to earn credit by examination according to the policy and procedures in the School of Health Professions section of this Catalog. Students who have college credit for MLT coursework are eligible to take “challenge examinations.” Students who are certified MLT (ASCP), have completed a MLT program accredited by NAACLS, and have an associate degree are not required to take challenge examinations. Challenge examinations must be passed with a grade of 70% or better for credit to be earned. For detailed information about eligible courses, fees, schedules, and procedures, contact the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences.

Placement Examinations

Individuals who have certification from Board of Certification (BOC) of  ASCP as a MLT, have graduated from an accredited MLT program with an associate degree and are entering the senior year may be given placement examinations to determine areas of discipline strengths and weaknesses.

Practicum Assignments

Clinical practicum assignments provide the student with a breadth of experiences that encompass all major content areas and exposure to laboratory technology. Assignment to clinical affiliates for practicum courses is based on availability of positions at the affiliate sites. Practicum courses typically begin in the fall semester and are completed during the spring semester.

All students are expected to complete at least one practicum at an affiliate located outside of San Antonio. If a student declines to go to an assigned affiliate, this will result in a loss of the student’s practicum position and possible delay of graduation. Students who have special needs and request specific considerations for practicum assignments must put the request in writing to the department chair at least one semester before the practicum begins. The chair will take the request to the faculty who will approve or disapprove the request.

Program Costs

In addition to required tuition and fees, there are costs for textbooks, scrubs, and equipment. Detailed information about program costs can be found on the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences website.

Transfer of Credits

Agreements for transferable coursework exist with some area colleges and universities. Students should contact the Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences or the biology advisor at their institution to determine if such an agreement exists with their school.

For additional information, see the policies and procedures in the School of Health Professions section of this Catalog.

CLSC Courses

CLSC 3000. Introduction to Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 2 Credit Hours.

This Web-based course is an overview of the clinical laboratory profession. There are three general areas of study. The first is information on the profession including history, educational requirements, job responsibilities and opportunities, as well as the structure and role of the clinical laboratory in medicine. The second is an introduction to medical terminology using an overview of the body systems. Examples of the use of laboratory tests to detect pathologies in these systems are included. The third area is quality assurance. Enrollment is open to laboratory science students at other universities both in state and out of state. Texas residents and non-residents living in Texas pay applicable tuition and fees of the Health Science Center.

CLSC 3001. Phlebotomy Practicum. 0.5 Credit Hours.

Under the direction and supervision of a clinical instructor in a hospital or outpatient facility, the student will be given the opportunity to gain experience and expertise in phlebotomy procedures. This practicum may be taken anytime after the student has been accepted into the program. Positions will be based on the availability of sites. Students must arrange this practicum with the education coordinator before enrolling. This practicum must be completed before beginning clinical practicums in the senior year.

CLSC 3010. Body Fluids. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a study of selected body fluids including urine, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, pleural fluid, peritoneal fluid, pericardial fluid, and synovial fluid. Renal physiology and the physical and chemical properties of urine and cellular elements of the urine in healthy and diseased states are studied. The formation and function of cerebrospinal fluid and amniotic fluid will be discussed. The anatomy and physiology of pleural, peritoneal, and pericardial cavities will be presented. Attention is given to the cellular and formed elements found in these body fluids. In addition, this course includes the performance of various laboratory procedures utilized in the analysis of each of these fluids. Case studies will be used to emphasize the changes in laboratory results associated with various disease states. Principles and applications of quality control procedures are practiced.

CLSC 3011. Quality Assurance in the Clinical Laboratory. 1 Credit Hour.

This course presents the principles, statistics, and applications of quality assurance as it pertains to the clinical laboratory. The course will emphasize the statistics that are needed to evaluate a quality control system, the rules that are necessary for interpreting the quality control results, and the role of quality control in a quality assurance program. The impact of federal and state regulatory agencies on the clinical laboratory and its quality assurance program will be discussed. A large part of this course is via computer-assisted instruction.

CLSC 3020. Special Topics in Clinical Immunology. 1-2 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed a course that included clinical immunology/serology at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected immunology/serology topics that may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. Prerequisites: proficiency exam, permission from course director.

CLSC 3022. Special Topics in Body Fluids. 1-2 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed a course that included urinalysis and other body fluids at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected body fluids topics that may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. A proficiency exam and permission from course director are required.

CLSC 3033. Medical Microbiology. 3 Credit Hours.

This is a comprehensive study of medically important microorganisms including their composition, morphology, and growth requirements. Methods for identification including biochemical reactions of significant pathogens and their role in infectious disease will be stressed.

CLSC 3034. Medical Microbiology Lab. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a laboratory course emphasizing diagnostic clinical microbiology. Examination of samples from different body sites provides students the opportunity to recognize and identify organisms that comprise the normal flora and those that are potential pathogens. This course includes conventional and rapid biochemical methods for detection and identification of significant organisms. Principles and application of quality control procedures are practiced. Corequisites: CLSC 3033.

CLSC 3035. Special Topics in Medical Microbiology. 1-5 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed a medical microbiology course at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected medical microbiology topics that may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. Proficiency exam and permission from course director are required.

CLSC 3040. Special Topics in Microbiology. 2.5 Credit Hours.

This lecture and laboratory course will focus on the transmission, pathophysiology, clinical sites of infection, clinical presentation, life cycles, and identification of infrequently isolated bacterial pathogens, anaerobes, mycobacteria, viruses, parasites and fungal agents. Specimen collection techniques and methods of processing specimens for each group of organisms will be included. Laboratory sessions will focus on microscopic identification as well as classic and rapid methods of detection and identification of these etiologic agents. Prerequisites: CLSC 3033 and CLSC 3034.

CLSC 3051. Hematology. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is a study of the normal production, maturation, and function of erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. Common disorders involving such cells will be discussed with emphasis on the pathogenic mechanisms. Hematologic laboratory tests and their correlations with disease states will also be examined. Normal hemostasis will be considered including pertinent laboratory tests used in diagnosis of coagulation problems.

CLSC 3052. Hematology Laboratory. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a clinical laboratory course emphasizing manual and semi-automated cell counting techniques and other basic hematologic tests. Time is devoted to the examination of normal and abnormal blood smears with emphasis on identification of cells and their relationships to various disease processes. An introduction to quality control methods in the hematology laboratory will also be included. Corequisites: CLSC 3051.

CLSC 3060. Immunohematology. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a study of the major blood groups of humans including the red cell antigen systems, alloantibodies, and non-immune stimulated antibodies. The relationship of blood group systems to compatibility testing, transfusion reactions, and hemolytic disease of the newborn will be discussed.

CLSC 3063. Special Topics in Immunohematology. 1-4 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed an immunohematology course at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected immunohematology topics which may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. A proficiency exam and permission from course director are required.

CLSC 3064. Immunohematology Laboratory. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a laboratory course emphasizing basic bloodbanking techniques including blood typing, identification of alloantibodies, and resolution of typing discrepancies. Techniques used in resolution of compatibility testing, investigation of transfusion reactions, and hemolytic disease of the newborn are practiced. Principles and applications of quality control are introduced. Corequisites: CLSC 3060.

CLSC 3065. Clinical Immunology. 3 Credit Hours.

This course will discuss the principles of innate and acquired immunity. Emphasis will be placed on the cell-mediated immune response and humoral immune response to immunogens. The cells of either response, their development, and their role in the specific immune response will be discussed. Soluble mediators of the immune response will be covered including immunoglobulins, cytokines, and complement. Finally, disorders of impaired immune function and infectious diseases will be discussed including autoimmunity, hypersensitivity, transplantation and tumor immunology, immunodeficiency, syphilis, infectious mononucleosis, etc. Laboratory testing for these disorders will be described.

CLSC 3070. Diagnostic Immunology Lecture. 1.5 Credit Hour.

This didactic course presents the principles and applications of immunology as it pertains to diagnosis of disease states. The course will cover methods to detect infectious as well as autoimmune diseases using immunologic technologies such as immunofluorescence, enzyme immunoassays, and flow cytometry. Correlation of the laboratory results with the disease states will be emphasized. Clinical applications of flow cytometry, histocompatibility testing, serology, and immunochemistry assays will be presented. Immmunology is required.

CLSC 3071. Diagnostic Immunology Laboratory. 1 Credit Hour.

This laboratory course introduces students to basic laboratory concepts and skills. Safety regulations and procedures will be covered. Specimen collection, handling and storage are discussed in relation to the reliability of a laboratory test result. Students will perform immunologic procedures commonly used in the diagnosis of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Principles and applications of quality control procedures are integrated throughout.

CLSC 3072. Molecular and Immunological Diagnosis. 4 Credit Hours.

This didactic course presents the principles of molecular biology and an in-depth review of immunology. Molecular and immunological techniques such as PCR, western blotting, flow cytometry, and immunochemistry assays will be discussed with an emphasis on the diagnosis of disease states. Clinical applications in forensics, paternity testing, diagnosis of infectious disease states, inherited conditions and neoplasms will be presented.

CLSC 3073. Molecular and Immunologic Diagnostic Lab. 1 Credit Hour.

This laboratory course will offer the opportunity for students to perform both molecular and immunologic techniques. Students will perform molecular diagnostic techniques such as PCR and gel electrophoresis that are used in the investigation of inherited conditions and neoplasms and become familiar with potential sources of error. Students will also perform immunologic procedures commonly used in the diagnosis of infectious and autoimmune diseases. Principles and applications of quality control procedures are practiced. Corequisites: CLSC 3072.

CLSC 3081. Clinical Chemistry. 2.5 Credit Hours.

The study of carbohydrates, enzymes, proteins and other chemicals routinely analyzed in clinical chemistry laboratories. Emphasis is placed upon principles of testing, methods of analysis, data interpretation, and clinical significance of results. Laboratory mathematics, quality control, safety, and instrumentation also are topics covered.

CLSC 3082. Clinical Chemistry Laboratory. 1.5 Credit Hour.

This is a laboratory course emphasizing biochemical analysis of body fluids utilizing manual procedures and semi-automated instrumentation. Students are given the opportunity to develop motor skills and organizational techniques in biochemical procedures. Principles and applications of quality control procedures are practiced. Corequisites: CLSC 3081.

CLSC 3083. Special Topics in Clinical Chemistry. 1-4 Credit Hours.

This course is designed for students who have completed a clinical chemistry course at an accredited CLT/MLT program. The course provides the student the opportunity to gain an understanding of selected clinical chemistry topics that may include theory and/or practice. The topics vary according to student's previous experience and education. Credit hours are variable. Hours will be assigned based on the topics covered. A proficiency exam and permission from course director are required.

CLSC 3085. Principles of Biochemistry. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is a discussion of the basic biomedical processes that occur in the human body. Topics that will be covered include the molecular basis of life, molecular structure, bioenergetics, enzymes, and metabolism.

CLSC 4006. Professional Issues. 1 Credit Hour.

This interdisciplinary course will provide an overview of professional and ethical issues facing allied health professionals. Topics to be discussed include responsibilities of the health care practitioner, life and death decisions, patient confidentiality, substance abuse, whistle blowing, and informed consent. Ethics in research and other critical issues related to health care problems will also be addressed. Collaborative activities and simulated cases will be used to enhance discussion among students.

CLSC 4020. Issues in Health Care. 1-3.5 Credit Hours.

This course is a study of selected topics in health care. Consent of instructor is required.

CLSC 4033. Advanced Medical Microbiology. 2 Credit Hours.

This course will discuss etiology of infectious diseases in different body sites. Laboratory identification of suspected etiologic agents, using conventional methods, will be emphasized. Recent developments in microbiology and new rapid methods in the identification of bacterial agents of infectious disease will also be presented. One section of this course is in a distance-learning format offered via the Web. Students wanting to enroll in the Web section must receive permission from the instructor.

CLSC 4035. Introduction to Molecular Diagnostics. 1.5 Credit Hour.

This course is a study of recombinant DNA concepts and technology. Applications of this technology in diagnosis and therapy of disease is emphasized. The course is a combination of lecture and laboratory. Prerequisites include genetics and junior CLSC coursework. One section of this course is in a distance-learning format offered via the Web. Students wanting to enroll in the Web section must receive permission from the instructor.

CLSC 4037. Microbiology Practicum. 4 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in the hospital setting, the student is introduced to the functional roles of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Emphasis is on the practical application of microbiological principles in the areas of bacteriology, parasitology, mycology, and mycobacteriology. Students have the opportunity to gain experience in the isolation and identification of both indigenous microflora and potential disease producing organisms of man. Concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) are emphasized.

CLSC 4038. Microbiology Categorical Practicum. 10 Credit Hours.

Under the direction and supervision of a clinical instructor in the clinical microbiology lab, the student is introduced to the functional roles of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Students will have the opportunity to develop proficiency in the areas of bacteriology, parasitology, mycology, mycobacteriology, immunology, and virology. A period of time will be devoted to allow the student to gain experience in performing microbiological studies in each of these areas.

CLSC 4040. Human Genetics. 2 Credit Hours.

An advanced course which provides the student an opportunity to study the cell cycle, oogenesis, spermatogenesis, Mendelian inheritance, polygenic inheritance, population genetics, medical genetics, clinical cytogenetics, and basic molecular techniques. The course is self-paced requiring approximately 2 hours per week. Prerequisites: Admission to Cytogenetics Program or consent of instructor.

CLSC 4041. Clinical Cytogenetics. 4 Credit Hours.

This is an advanced lecture course covering theories, concepts, and techniques applicable to the practice of clinical cytogenetics. Topics include mitotic and meiotic cell cycles with emphasis on errors and manipulations, chromosome structure, mechanisms of chromosome abnormality formation, cytogenetics syndromes, inheritance patterns, cancer genetics, instability syndromes, clinical correlation of chromosome abnormalities, microscopy, computer imaging, cell culture, analysis, ISCN, pedigree construction, and other current genetic issues. Prerequisites: CLSC 4040 or consent of instructor.

CLSC 4042. Hematology for the Geneticist. 1 Credit Hour.

This is an advanced study of the normal production, maturation and function of erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets. The pathogenic mechanisms as well as the peripheral blood and bone marrow findings in relation to leukocyte disorders will be covered. Study of the correlation of cytogenetic abnormalities to specific disorders will be emphasized. Corequisite: CLSC 4041 or consent of the instructor.

CLSC 4043. Cytogenetics Techniques. 4 Credit Hours.

This is an advanced laboratory course designed to cover all aspects of cytogenetic laboratory practice including specimen evaluation, culture initiation, culture maintenance, harvesting, slidemaking, staining and banding techniques (conventional, GTG, QFQ, CBG, AgNOR, DA/DAPI, SCE, and FISH), banding pattern recognition, microscopic analysis, computer imaging, computer-assisted karyotyping and ISCN. Instrumentation, solution preparation, laboratory math, quality control, and regulatory issues will be emphasized. Prerequisites: CLSC 4041 or consent of the instructor.

CLSC 4044. Current Topics in Genetics. 1 Credit Hour.

This is an advanced seminar course that provides the student an opportunity to acquire knowledge of the latest developments in the field of human genetics with emphasis on the structure, behavior, and function of chromosomes as related to human diseases. Discussion sessions follow seminar presentation of critical literature reviews of a specific topic, current journal articles, or of individual research. Presenters will be drawn from the cytogenetics community of the Health Science Center and surrounding area. Each student is required to make a short presentation on a topic of interest selected with the aid of the coordinator. Prerequisites: CLSC 4041 or concurrent enrollment.

CLSC 4045. Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratory 1. 5 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to extend their knowledge of principles and techniques of clinical cytogenetics which were presented in the didactic portion of the curriculum. The student will have the opportunity to gain experience with a wide variety of procedures which include culturing, harvesting, slide preparation, staining, and analyzing metaphases, with emphasis on the processing of peripheral blood samples. Clinical correlations of the chromosomal findings are included. Grades are based on laboratory performance and results achieved on written and/or practical examinations conducted at the particular clinical affiliate to which the student is assigned. Prerequisites: CLSC 4041, CLSC 4043, and CLSC 4042.

CLSC 4046. Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratory 2. 5 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to extend their knowledge of principles and techniques of clinical cytogenetics which were presented in the didactic portion of the curriculum. The student will have the opportunity to gain experience with a wide variety of procedures which include culturing, harvesting, slide preparation, staining, and analyzing metaphases, with emphasis on the processing of amniotic fluid and chorionic villi samples. Clinical correlations of the chromosomal findings are included. Grades are based on laboratory performance and results achieved on written and/or practical examinations conducted at the particular clinical affiliate to which the student is assigned. Prerequisites: CLSC 4045.

CLSC 4047. Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratory 3. 5 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to extend their knowledge of principles and techniques of clinical cytogenetics that were presented in the didactic portion of the curriculum. The student will have the opportunity to gain experience with a wide variety of procedures which include culturing, harvesting, slide preparation, staining, and analyzing metaphases, with emphasis on the processing of bone marrow and solid tumor samples. Clinical correlations of the chromosomal findings are included. Grades are based on laboratory performance and results achieved on written and/or practical examinations conducted at the particular clinical affiliate to which the student is assigned. Prerequisites: CLSC 4046.

CLSC 4048. Clinical Cytogenetics Laboratory 4. 5 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to extend their knowledge of principles and techniques of clinical cytogenetics that were presented in the didactic portion of the curriculum. The student will have the opportunity to gain experience with a wide variety of procedures which include culturing, harvesting, slide preparation, staining, and analyzing metaphases, with emphasis on quality control, applications of FISH, molecular techniques and computer imaging. Clinical correlations of the chromosomal findings are included. Grades are based on laboratory performance and results achieved on written and/or practical examinations conducted at the particular clinical affiliate to which the student is assigned. Prerequisites: CLSC 4047.

CLSC 4049. Cytogenetics Lab Practices. 1.5 Credit Hour.

An exploration of problem-solving processes and strategies for resolving difficult cases is the focus of this course. Students will be presented with the opportunity to integrate previously presented topics with experiences gained from clinical practicums. A thorough review of basic principles as applied in the clinical laboratory is included. Prerequisites: CLSC 4048 or consent of instructor.

CLSC 4050. Research In Cytogenetics. 1-5 Credit Hours.

This is an advanced course that provides the student an opportunity to apply scientific method to a clinical laboratory research problem, demonstrate a systematic application of hypothesis formation, and decision-making through research design principles. Course evaluation is based upon performance on the term project. Requires consent of Program Director and Instructor. May be repeated for credit. Prerequisites: CLSC 4047.

CLSC 4053. Advanced Hematology. 2 Credit Hours.

Using problem-based learning approach, this advanced course presents the pathogenic mechanisms of disorders involving erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and coagulation factors. The methodology for detection of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs is examined. The peripheral blood and bone marrow findings in relation to various hematopoietic disease processes will be emphasized. Abnormalities of hemostatic mechanisms and their correlation with laboratory tests will be presented.

CLSC 4054. Advanced Hematology/Web-Based. 2 Credit Hours.

This advanced course in hematology/hemostasis presents the pathogenic mechanisms of disorders involving erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets, and coagulation factors. The methodology for detection of diseases of the blood and blood forming organs is examined with emphasis on the interpretation of the findings and determination of appropriate reflex testing. Morphologic changes in the peripheral blood and bone marrow will be emphasized. This is a Web-based course. Enrollment is open to clinical laboratory technicians/medical laboratory technicians or military-trained laboratory personnel who have been accepted into the CLS program or by special permission from the course director.

CLSC 4055. Advanced Immunohematology. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a lecture course which uses case studies to emphasize theory and principles and develop problem solving skills. Major areas of focus include collection, processing and therapeutic use of blood components; investigation of autoantibodies and alloantibodies as detected in hemolytic disease of newborns, transfusion reactions, and autoimmune hemolytic anemias. The HLA system and applications in transplantation and paternity testing will also be discussed. One section of this course is in a distance-learning format offered via the Web. Students wanting to enroll in the Web section must receive permission from the instructor.

CLSC 4057. Hematology Practicum. 4 Credit Hours.

Under the direction and supervision of a clinical instructor, the student will have the opportunity to gain expertise and confidence working in the clinical hematology section of the hospital laboratory. Students will be allowed to perform hematologic tests as well as "troubleshoot" automated cell counters. An opportunity to gain proficiency in morphologic evaluation of normal and abnormal cellular morphology, including peripheral blood and bone marrow examination, will be offered. The student will be introduced to the technology of flow cytometry and the immunologic study of disease states. Knowledge of internal and external quality control methods in the hematology laboratory will be emphasized. Students will also have the opportunity to learn the principles of interfacing laboratory instrumentation with the laboratory information system as well as the role of the LIS in test ordering, specimen processing, and reporting results.

CLSC 4058. Hematology Categorical Practicum. 6 Credit Hours.

Under the direction and supervision of a clinical instructor, the student will have the opportunity to gain expertise working in the clinical hematology laboratory. Students will perform routine and special hematologic procedures, "troubleshoot" automated cell counters, and gain proficiency in morphologic evaluation of normal and abnormal cellular morphology, including peripheral blood and bone marrow examination. The student will be introduced to the technology of flow cytometry and immunologic study of disease states. In addition, the student will perform routine and special coagulation procedures and evaluate body fluids. Internal and external quality control methods in the hematology/coagulation laboratory will be emphasized. Phlebotomy techniques also will be practiced.

CLSC 4067. Immunohematology Practicum. 4 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in the hospital setting, the student will be given the opportunity to perform routine blood grouping and typing, compatibility testing, and donor unit processing. Experience in solving antibody problems, HLA testing, and preparing components will also be offered. Quality assurance procedures are practiced on a daily basis.

CLSC 4068. Immunohematology Categorical Practicum. 6 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical laboratory instructor, the student will have the opportunity to gain expertise in the various facets of clinical immunohematology. Areas emphasized include donor collection and processing, component preparation, routine grouping and typing, and compatibility testing. Students will have the opportunity to perform serologic testing for transfusion-transmitted disease. In addition, they will solve complex antibody problems and typing discrepancies using specialized techniques such as enzyme treatment, elution, and autoabsorption. Students will be required to perform HLA typing and investigate suspected cases of hemolytic disease of the newborn and transfusion reactions. Quality control procedures and records management for each area will be emphasized.

CLSC 4070. Immunology Practicum. 2 Credit Hours.

The student will be introduced to the technology of flow cytometry and the immunologic study of disease states. In the immunology/serology laboratory, the student will be required to perform routine testing of antigen/antibody reactions to help in the diagnosis of certain disease states.

CLSC 4083. Advanced Clinical Chemistry. 3 Credit Hours.

This is an advanced clinical lecture course emphasizing abnormalities in liver, cardiac, renal, and endocrine systems and their effect on chemical blood constituents. The theories and use of complex biochemical methodologies including immunochemical assays, chromatography, and electrophoresis also will be discussed. One section of this course is in a distance-learning format offered via the Web. Students wanting to enroll in the Web section must receive permission from the instructor.

CLSC 4087. Chemistry Practicum. 4 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in the hospital setting, the student is introduced to the delivery of health care as it relates to the chemistry diagnostic laboratory. The student has the opportunity to gain experience in toxicology, electrophoresis, immunochemical assays, urinalysis, and special chemistry procedures including neonatal intensive care testing. The student will be given the opportunity to operate modern, state-of-the-art clinical laboratory equipment. Motor skills as well as interpretive skills will be stressed. Knowledge of internal and external quality control methods in the clinical chemistry laboratory will be emphasized.

CLSC 4088. Clinical Chemistry Categorical Practicum. 6 Credit Hours.

Under the supervision and direction of a clinical instructor in a hospital or reference laboratory setting, the student will have the opportunity to gain expertise and confidence working with automated clinical analyzers and performing esoteric clinical chemistry analyses. The student will have the opportunity to operate state-of-the-art, high-volume chemical analyzers, to observe preventive maintenance and troubleshooting procedures, and to gain firsthand experience with the recording and evaluation of quality control results. The student will perform highly specialized chemical analyses that may include serum protein electrophoresis, lipoprotein electrophoresis, toxicology screens, immunochemical assays, lecithin/sphingomyelin ratio for assessment of fetal lung maturity, blood gas analyses, and blood gas instrument troubleshooting procedures. The ability to organize work in a multi-tasking environment will be emphasized. The student will be encouraged to present interesting and unusual case studies in an academic environment.

CLSC 4090. Management for Clinical Laboratory Sciences. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to provide the student with the opportunity to develop entry-level management and supervisory skills. Topics include principles of communication; group dynamics; leadership styles; interviewing; planning; financial analysis; and policies, procedures, and regulations. Developing and designing presentations; learning principles, objectives and use of audiovisual aids; and design and evaluation of research projects are discussed. Other timely topics in health care may be considered. This is a Web-based course and enrollment is open to clinical laboratory technicians or military-trained personnel who have been accepted into the CLS program, or by special permission from the course director.

CLSC 4091. Independent Study. 1-12 Credit Hours.

A plan of study is determined by the supervising faculty. The participating student and supervising faculty develop the course requirements and forms of evaluation. Credit hours are determined by the scope of the project.

CLSC 4095. Management. 2.5 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to present the principle of group dynamics, human resources management, and financial analysis to students in laboratory medicine. Topics include leadership style, staffing, and laboratory information systems (data management, analysis, selection). Writing resumes and laboratory procedures and developing job performance criteria are included. Interviewing techniques and performance evaluations are practiced. Current issues in managed care including outcomes assessment, evidence-based medicine, infection control, CLIA regulations, point of care testing, onsite surveys of the laboratory and medical necessity are discussed.

CLSC 4101. Honors CLS Course. 2.5-5 Credit Hours.

This is an elective course for students who want to study a CLS discipline in more depth or breadth, participate in a research project, study a professional issue, or work on a laboratory-related problem. This course is open only to students who have the permission of the Department Chair, are in good standing in the CLS Program, have a minimum GPA of 2.5, and a letter of recommendation from a CLS faculty member. The student is responsible for selecting an area of interest and securing the approval of a faculty mentor who will supervise the student's work.

CLSC 4102. Honors CLS Practicum. 1-5 Credit Hours.

This elective course is for students who are interested in completing clinical practicums in specialized areas not included in the required clinical practicums. This may include laboratory management, molecular diagnostics, virology, etc. Certified clinical laboratory technicians who have extensive experience in the laboratory and who have completed the objectives of required practicums may choose to enroll in this practicum. A special clinical experience in the South Texas Environmental Education and Research (STEER) Program may be available to select students. This program is open to sophomores and juniors as well as seniors. The STEER Program is five weeks long and takes place in Laredo, Texas. Housing is provided. To enroll in this course, students must have the permission of the Department Chair, a minimum 2.5 GPA, and letters of recommendation from two faculty members. The student must be in good standing in all coursework. In addition, to enroll in the STEER Program, students must apply, be accepted, and complete a one-page statement of interest.

CLSC 4189. CLS Senior Seminar. 1 Credit Hour.

Integrated study of selected topics in clinical laboratory science.

CLSC 4190. Research. 2 Credit Hours.

This course is an introduction to the components of medical research, the different types of clinical research trials, the purpose of the institutional review board and the informed consent procedure. Characteristics of the ethical researcher will be described. An overview of appropriate research design and data collection, sample size determination, and statistical evaluation of the result s will be discussed. Students will have the opportunity to develop group research projects, write a proposal, develop a PowerPoint presentation, and present the proposal to faculty and students.

CLSC 5007. Toxicology Practicum. 5 Credit Hours.

This is a one-semester rotation through different types of toxicology laboratories including medical examiners, clinical, and drug testing. Practicums will be supervised by faculty.

CLSC 5014. Principles and Applications in Analytical Toxicology. 5 Credit Hours.

This course will concentrate on major topical areas of toxicology including: mechanisms toxicity in teratogenicity and carcinogenicity; mechanisms of systemic toxicity and damage to specific organs, chemical and immunochemical analytical techniques including non-instrumental methods such as spot tests and thin layer chromatography, and instrumental methods such as ELISA, HPLC, LC/MS/MS, GC/MS and capillary zone electgrophoresis; and toxicology of toxins and toxicants including herbs and botanicals. Case studies will be used through the cause to develop skills in the application concepts and principles. Prerequisites: CLSC 5018.

CLSC 5017. Toxicology Seminar. 1 Credit Hour.

This course includes formal exchange of scientific information and ideas through presentations from recent scientific literature and from faculty and student research.

CLSC 5018. Medical and Forensic Toxicology. 5 Credit Hours.

This course concentrates on medical and forensic toxicology and where the two branches meet. The course will concentrate on specific topics within toxicology including toxins from plant and animal sources, selected therapeutic drugs and drugs of abuse, the emerging use of pharmacogenomics in personalized medicine and its role in reducing toxicity, new paradigms relating to the development of toxic reactions and provide introductory lectures in industrial and occupational toxicology. Case studies will be used throughout the course to develop problem-solving skills in the determination of cause, manner and mechanism of death in postmortem cases. Requirements for toxicology laboratory certification and design will be included.

CLSC 5020. Applied Toxicology. 2 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to complement courses CLSC 5014 and CSLC 5018. Under supervision of the program director and toxicologists from various areas of the discipline, the student will apply her/his knowledge of toxicology and forensic science to solving cases in emergency and forensic cases. Permission is required.

CLSC 5040. Laboratory Medicine. 3 Credit Hours.

This course is offered to students in the Physician Assistant Studies Program at the Health Science Center. The course is designed to provide the student with the opportunity to gain information on the profession of CLS including history and job characteristics. Relationships between abnormal physiology and laboratory testing will be emphasized. Basic lab and math statistics will be taught. Part of the course is Web-based.

CLSC 5041. Laboratory Medicine Lab. 1 Credit Hour.

This course is offered to students in the Physician Assistant Studies Program. This is a laboratory course that provides the student with hands-on experience in performing common physician office laboratory procedures. Case studies are used to help students interpret and use laboratory test results.

CLSC 5085. Organ System Biochemistry. 3 Credit Hours.

This course takes an organ systems approach to the biochemical processes that occur in the human body. The course will cover the major biochemical mechanisms that operate in all human tissues, the characteristic biochemical processes that occur in each major organ system, and the biochemical interrelationship between the major organ systems. Permission is required.

CLSC 5090. Independent Study In Clinical Laboratory Studies. 1-4 Credit Hours.

This course allows for in-depth study in a specific topic area. Topics and method of study are agreed upon by instructor and student. The course may be repeated for credit when topics vary.

CLSC 6096. Capstone Project In Toxicology. 4 Credit Hours.

This is a focused well-referenced research project on current issues in any area of toxicology, including but not limited to Clinical (emergency toxicology and therapeutic drug monitoring) and postmortem forensic toxicology. The project shall focus on the theory, analysis and current practices and issues and may involve some laboratory work. The written document shall be between 10,000-15,000 words long and shall be accompanied by an oral presentation.

CLSC 6097. Research. 3 Credit Hours.

This course consists of supervised research under direction of faculty.

CLSC 6098. Thesis. 3 Credit Hours.

Instruction in the preparation of a thesis from the results of the research performed in CLSC 6097. Registration is required for at least one term for the MS candidate enrolled in CLSC 6097. Admission to candidacy for the Master of Science degree is required.

INTD Courses

INTD 1091. Independent Study. 4 Credit Hours.

Students will work directly with a faculty advisor or assistant dean to develop an independent plan of study.

INTD 3001. International Elective. Credit Hours.

Students will work with the course director and Assistant Director of Global Health to identify an appropriate international elective site, using established sites/programs or one that the student discovers on their own. All rotations must be vetted and approved by the course director and will adhere to a community service-learning model that is a structured educational experience combining community service with preparation and reflection. Students are expected to help shape the learning experience around community-identified needs and advance insight related to the context in which service is provided, the connection between service and academic coursework, and students' roles as citizens and professionals. Students will spend 4 weeks living and working at an international service site. Sites may allow for a range of experiences, such as participating in patient care, conducting clinical or public health research, and/or participating in a language immersion program. There may also be opportunities for patient education and emphasis on efforts of local empowerment, aiming to build up the communities in a sustainable way. Regardless of the focus, all sites must be supervised by qualified health care providers. Students are encouraged to integrate themselves into the health care delivery system, to explore community needs that they could address, and when possible, to strive to make an impact through community education, home visits, and research. Reflection essays serve as a way to process experiences, including clinical cases, new perspectives gained, and analysis of health care disparities, and strategies for the overcoming poverty-related health problems. Students are encouraged to share their experiences upon return through a formal presentation.

INTD 3002. School of Medicine Research Elective. Credit Hours.

Students will participate in basic or clinical research projects under the supervision of university faculty. The goal of this elective is to immerse students in a rich research environment and provide an opportunity to work with research mentors to fully engage in the research process from writing the proposal to collecting the data to disseminating research results. This elective is open to students who already have an established working relationship with a faculty member and who wish time to continue their work, students who wish to establish a new project, and for students who are in the MD-MPH degree program and MD with Distinction in Research Program. Interested students must contact the course director prior to the enrollment date to express interest in the elective and receive further instructions on the application process for the research and identification/ confirmation of the faculty mentor.

INTD 3030. Clinical Foundations. 3 Credit Hours.

The purposes of this course are to 1) Prepare students to excel as learners in clinical settings by providing foundations for clinical skills including finding information, presenting cases, charting, writing orders, completing other paperwork, and clinical reasoning including basic EKG and radiograph interpretation; 2) Assist students in developing new skills expected of third-year clerks including lab skills (phlebotomy, ABG, blood cultures, hemoccult cards), IV insertion, PPD placement, sterile gowning/ gloving, basic suturing, nasogastric tube placement, O2 management, and Basic Cardiac Life Support; and 3) Prepare students for their new roles in clinical settings, where they encounter patient care responsibilities along with patient privacy and ethical issues. Successful completion of the first two years of Medical School and approval of the director of the MD/PhD program are required.

INTD 3058. Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Credit Hours.

This rotation offers clinical experience in Hospice and Palliative Medicine (HPM). Palliative care provides treatment for seriously ill hospitalized and ambulatory patients and focuses on symptom management, enhancement of function, physical comfort, quality of life, psychosocial support, and communication about the goals of medical care for the patients as well as their families.

INTD 3091. Independent Study. 9 Credit Hours.

Students will work directly with a faculty advisor or assistant dean to develop an independent plan of study.

INTD 4007. Interprofessional Community Service Learning. 2 Credit Hours.

This is an innovative interdisciplinary service learning (CSL) course offered in partnership with the UT School of Pharmacy, PHR 270S, to allow medical students to integrate meaningful community service with instruction, preparation, and reflection to enrich the learning experience, teach civic responsibility, and strengthen communities. This course will provide the opportunity for students to examine social justice and social determinant of health issues and apply these principles in a structured serviced learning practicum. The student-led service learning project will address the social and health needs of a community partner and will be conducted with the partner agency in a culturally competent manner. Through online learning modules, readings, and discussion; monthly class sessions; a group service learning project; and a structured service learning practicum, this course combines community service with preparation and reflection to foster civic responsibility in the health professions.

INTD 4008. Interprofessional Care in HIV. 0.5 Credit Hours.

Students will have the opportunity to learn how to function as a member of an interprofessional team in HIV case management. The objective is for students to become familiar with issues of patient safety, health literacy, medication reconciliation, and interprofessional teamwork in HIV care. This is an elective didactic course. This is an elective didactic course.

INTD 4009. Interprofessional Care in HIV. 2 Credit Hours.

Students will have the opportunity to learn how to function as a member of an interprofessional team in HIV case management, and become familiar with issues of: patient safety, health literacy, medication reconciliation, treatment guidelines, and interprofessional teamwork in HIV care.

INTD 4015. Humanism in Medicine Fellowship. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a longitudinal 4th-year elective to support and nourish the inherent altruism of our students. This elective will bring together like-minded students and faculty who have a passion for caring for the medically underserved in their communities. The students will take a leadership role in managing and directing the student-run clinics at the Alpha Home and SAMM Transitional Living and Learning Center under faculty supervision. Clinical experiences will be at these clinics and on trips with Frontera de Salud to the Colonias of South Texas. This elective will include required monthly seminars in which students and faculty meet to discuss their experiences in these clinics. Activities in the elective will include working with vulnerable populations, advocating for social justice, reflecting, and writing. Each student fellow will develop a mentorship relationship with at least one faculty member. Students will keep a journal and may elect to conduct some scholarly project with their faculty mentor(s).

INTD 4018. Independent Elective in Ethics. 2 Credit Hours.

In this longitudinal course, students will be required to undertake an independent study into a specific issue in medical ethics or medical humanities. Students will be required to read on research methods in medical ethics as well as literature in their issue of interest, and then to propose and conduct an original study project, a literature review, a position paper, or an ethical analysis of a particular topic or case. Students will be expected to write an academically rigorous final research report of 10 to 15 pages. Students will be encouraged to produce a final paper that can be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed bioethics or medical humanities journal. Students will be required to meet with the instructor and/or chosen faculty advisor over the course for assistance, guidance, and discussion. (Center for Medical Humanities and Ethics).

INTD 4019. Clinical Ethics. 2 Credit Hours.

Students in this two-week course will have the opportunity to focus on work in clinical ethics consultation. The student will be required to participate in rounds as an ethicist, do in-depth reading on clinical ethics consultation, observe clinical ethics consults, attend ethics committee meetings, and provide an educational seminar to hospital staff on an issue of ethical significance.

INTD 4025. Healthcare Practice and Policy Elective. 0.5 Credit Hours.

The Healthcare Practice Elective is an introductory-level, discussion-based, eight-hour course targeted to fourth-year medical students. The course focuses generally on practice and policy issues of payment methodologies, cost-effectiveness, and access to care.

INTD 4030. Preparing for Global Health Work. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a 2-week multidisciplinary course for 4th-year medical students who are planning future global health experiences, arising in response to enormous interest in international medicine, with increasing numbers of students choosing to spend time overseas during medical school. This preparatory course aims to provide a foundation of practical knowledge in global health to optimize the students' overseas experiences, facilitate their adaptation to working in different cultural settings, and maximize their impact in the communities where they serve. Topics include chronic and infectious disease, parasite infection, prioritizing community resources, health disparities, ethical dilemmas, cultural awareness, and professionalism. Course material is presented through a variety of approaches, including lectures, small-group case discussions, laboratory sessions, and online learning modules.

INTD 4045. Patient Notes- Enrichment Elective. Credit Hours.

It is an interactive, inter-professional course that engages students in music listening sessions to teach students active listening skills. Through various forms of music, students will learn how to actively listen for specific details to gain insight on meaning, become comfortable with ambiguity and interpretation, and develop pattern recognition skills to quickly recognize deviation. Students will also develop stronger methodology for writing patients notes through conceptual practice of SOAP format notes for music pieces. Taught jointly by UTHSCSA faculty and professional musicians, this strategy of applying practical skills to an abstract concept such as music will refine these skills for students in clinical settings. Specifically, this course aims to improve interpersonal communication skills, and organizational note writing. This is also an opportunity for students to practice problems solving with other healthcare professionals.

INTD 4048. Art Rounds. 2 Credit Hours.

This is an interactive, interprofessional course that takes students to the McNay Art Museum to learn physical observation skills. Studies demonstrate that increased observational skills translate to improved physical examination skills. Using artwork as patients, students will have the opportunity to learn how to observe details and how to interpret images based on available evidence. Taught jointly by Health Science Center faculty and McNay museum educators, students will have the opportunity to develop and hone their observation, problem solving, and assessment skills. They will also observe, interpret, and give case reports on the original works of art to teach them the skill of verbalizing descriptions of what is seen, and not to accept assumptions made with a first impression.

INTD 4058. Hospice and Palliative Medicine Elective. 4 Credit Hours.

This rotation offers clinical experience in Hospice and Palliative Medicine (HPM). Palliative care provides treatment for seriously ill hospitalized and ambulatory patients and focuses on symptom management, enhancement of function, physical comfort, quality of life, psychosocial support, and communication about the goals of medical care for the patients as well as their families.

INTD 4103. Communication Skills. 0.5 Credit Hours.

To introduce fourth year medical students to the principles of conducting public interviews, presentations and effectively disseminating information to the communities they will serve.

INTD 4104. Improving Patient Outcomes. 0.5 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to increase a student's knowledge of and skills in identifying systemic problems with health care delivery and patient safety, collecting and analyzing data, generating solutions, presenting results and evaluating peers. The course objectives include facilitating systems thinking, exposing students to the ACGME general competencies (with emphasis on practice-based learning and improvement and systems-based practice), increasing understanding of health care economics and working in teams.

INTD 4105. Medical Jurisprudence. 0.5 Credit Hours.

The course will center on the Texas Medical Practice Act and applicable federal laws.

INTD 4106. Practical Ethics For Healers. 0.5 Credit Hours.

The course is the capstone of the four-year longitudinal curriculum in humanities and ethics. The goals are to reflect upon 1) physician's values, attitudes, and their intersection with cultural values and attitudes; 2) the historical and moral traditions of medicine in the context of society, politics, spirituality, and the health care system; and 3) the personal identity of a doctor.

INTD 4107. The Skin Around Us: A View of Skin Disease from a Humanities Perspective. 4 Credit Hours.

This elective is for fourth year medical students with a special interest in learning about skin diseases through a humanities perspective. Throughout the four week course, students will attend daily clinics, create a project and write an essay on activities encountered during the elective. The students will also complete brief writing assignments each week after watching videos, movies, and/or reading books.

INTD 4110. Getting Ready to Teach During Your Residency Program. 0.5 Credit Hours.

The goal of this 8-hour course is to help senior medical students, who will be residents in a few months, develop teaching skills that will enhance the quality of their interactions with students. The course will be conducted in an interactive workshop format to allow participants to practice important teaching skills for residents. These include 1) orienting and priming students to their responsibilities and roles and accepting the personal role of teacher and role model, 2) giving feedback to improve student performance, 3) helping students to improve their patient presentations-the use of questioning, and 4) coaching procedural and technical skills. The participants will practice these skills and receive feedback from their course peers and instructors based on the guidelines for clinical teachers in action with students and provide critiques. Large and small group discussions and role plays will be used to reinforce teaching principles.

INTD 4201. Getting Ready To Teach During Your Residency-RAHC. 0.5 Credit Hours.

The goal of this course is to help senior medical students, who will be residents in a few months, develop teaching skills that will enhance the quality of their interactions with medical students. The course addresses four important residents¿ teaching skills: (1), teaching learners with different learning styles, (2) providing constructive feedback, (3), teaching at the bedside, and (4) teaching psychomotor procedures.

INTD 4205. Veritas Mentors in Medicine Longitudinal Elective. 2 Credit Hours.

This is longitudinal elective and the course work requirements will be for 2 week credit and must be complete by March 1st. Evaluation of MiM performance will include feedback from faculty mentors and students.

INTD 4210. School of Medicine Research Elective Level 1. 4 Credit Hours.

Medical research is multidisciplinary and broad in scope. Students will participate in basic, clinical research, quality improvement, or patient safety research projects under the supervision of faculty in the Health Science Center. The goal of this elective is to immerse students in a rich scholarly environment and provide an opportunity to work with research/faculty mentors to fully engage in a scholarly research process from writing the proposal to collecting the data to disseminating results. This elective is open to students who already have an established working relationship with a faculty member and who wish time to continue their work, students who wish to establish a new project, and for students who are in the MD-MPH degree program and MD with Distinction in Research Program. Interested students must submit a research elective application which includes the faculty mentor the student will work, to the office of UME, no later than 12 weeks before the research elective is to begin. Applications will be reviewed and confirmed or declined no later than 8 weeks prior to the proposed start date of the elective. Students will be able to 1) Formulate a research question and identify a research methodology to answer that question; 2) understand research ethics and apply an ethical approach to research design, implementation, and dissemination 3) design a research study and gather quality data; 4) apply and interpret basic biostatistics relevant to the individual research project; 5) write scientific reports. The supervising faculty member will evaluate the performance of the student using a standard, research specific, medical student evaluation form. Students will receive a Pass or Fail summative grade at the conclusion of the 4 week elective. Faculty will be expected to give the student formative feedback after two weeks to assist the student in meeting all expectations to pass the elective.

INTD 4211. School of Medicine Research Elective Level 2. 4 Credit Hours.

Medical research is multidisciplinary and broad in scope. Students will participate in basic, clinical research, quality improvement, or patient safety research projects under the supervision of faculty in the Health Science Center. The goal of this elective is to immerse students in a rich scholarly environment and provide an opportunity to work with research/faculty mentors to fully engage in a scholarly research process from writing the proposal to collecting the data to disseminating results. This elective is open to students who already have an established working relationship with a faculty member and reflects their increasing experience with the research process. INTD 4210 Level 1 elective or evidence of past experience knowledge and/or skills is a prerequisite. The expectation is that enrolled students will continue with research experiences begun in INTD 4210 Level 1 including students pursuing the MD-MPH degree and MD with Distinction in Research. Interested students must submit a research elective application which includes the faculty mentor the student will work, to the office of UME, no later than 12 weeks before the research elective is to begin. Applications will be reviewed and confirmed or declined no later than 8 weeks prior to the proposed start date of the elective.

INTD 4212. School of Medicine Research Elective Level 3. 4 Credit Hours.

Medical research is multidisciplinary and broad in scope. Students will participate in basic, clinical research, quality improvement, or patient safety research projects under the supervision of faculty in the Health Science Center. The goal of this elective is to immerse students in a rich scholarly environment and provide an opportunity to work with research/faculty mentors to fully engage in a scholarly research process from writing the proposal to collecting the data to disseminating results. Students enrolled in this course will have prior experience with research and ongoing research activities. As such, this elective is open to students who already have an established working relationship with a faculty member and reflects their increasing experience with the research process. INTD 4211 Level 2 electives is a prerequisite. As with INTD 4211 Level 2, the expectation is that enrolled students will continue with research experiences begun in INTD 4210 Level 1 and INTD 4211 Level 2 including students pursuing the MD-MPH degree and MD with Distinction in Research or produce evidence of past experience knowledge and/or skills which are deemed equivalent to these prerequisites. Interested students must submit a research elective application which includes the faculty mentor the student will work, to the office of UME, no later than 12 weeks before the research elective is to begin. Applications will be reviewed and confirmed or declined no later than 8 weeks prior to the proposed start date of the elective. Students will be able to formulate a research question and identify a research methodology to answer that question; understand research ethics and apply an ethical approach to research design, implementation, and dissemination; design a research study and gather quality data; apply and interpret basic biostatistics relevant to the individual research project; write scientific reports. The supervising faculty member will evaluate the performance of the student using a standard, research specific, medical student evaluation form. Students will receive a Pass or Fail summative grade at the conclusion of the 4 week elective. Faculty will be expected to give the student formative feedback after two weeks to assist the student in meeting all expectations to pass the elective.

INTD 5005. Core Course 1: Biochemistry. 2 Credit Hours.

Topics to be covered include: protein structure; properties of enzymes; structure, biosynthesis, and function of lipids; pathways and regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and biosynthesis and regulation of amino acids, nucleotides, and related compounds. Prerequisites: consent of instructor.

INTD 5007. Advanced Cellular And Molecular Biology. 4 Credit Hours.

This course provides an in-depth learning experience that instructs students on the fundamentals of molecular biology and cell biology as well as prepares the student to evaluate and design new research in the cutting-edge areas of modern molecular biology and cell biology. The course combines a didactic program of lectures along with a small group discussion format in which students interact closely with a group of faculty who have active research programs. The course focuses on active areas of research in molecular biology: Chromatin structure, DNA Transcription, DNA Replication and Repair, Recombination, RNA processing and regulation, Protein processing, targeting and degradation and in cell biology: Cell Signaling and Communication, Cell Growth, and Cell Death. Each week, the faculty provide students with didactic lectures on a current research area. Students and faculty will then jointly discuss key publications that serve to bridge the gap between the fundamental underpinnings of the field and the state of the art in that area.

INTD 5013. Perio/Pros/Endo/Orth Interdisciplinary Course 1. 1 Credit Hour.

A seminar that brings together the residents and graduate staff from the periodontic, prosthodontic,endodontic and orthodontic postdoctoral programs to share clinically relevant multidisciplinary information. Patient diagnostic evaluations and treatment plans are evaluated in an interactive environment. Selected topics involving new advancements are presented and discussed.

INTD 5020. Dental Biomed Core 1. 4 Credit Hours.

The Biomedical Core Course will provide a multidisciplinary approach to basic science instruction as it relates to the clinical practice of dentistry. Both basic science and clinical science faculty will participate to provide a sound base of material required by each program. Individual programs will supplement the Biomedical Core Course in the basic science areas particular to that discipline. This combination of core instruction with individual supplementation should provide the advanced education student the appropriate background in biomedical science.

INTD 5021. Dental Biomed Core 2. 1 Credit Hour.

This course is a continuation of INTD 5020 Dental Biomedical Core Course 1.

INTD 5023. Research Ethics. 1 Credit Hour.

The goal of this course is to provide the Master's student an opportunity to gain the essential standards necessary for training and education approved by the National Institute of Health. This course links to the web-based NIH Clinical Research Training On-Line Course http://www.cc.nih.gov/training/training/crt/infor.html for Principal Investigators that is required for all individuals conducting research.

INTD 5030. Introduction To Patient Care. 5 Credit Hours.

The first component of this course is an informatics module so that students become familiar with their new computers and are trained on specific software. In the second and overlapping component, students are assigned to a variety of small-group rotations in a clinical setting to prepare them for patient-care activities. In the first semester, the students are required to become certified in basic life support. They also are required to rotate through a clinic orientation that is followed by a rotation as an assistant in the General Practice Groups. They are expected to follow proper infection control protocol and utilize some basic assisting skills. They also are required to rotate through a head and neck exam activity, followed with a patient activity in the second semester. Second semester activities also include intraoral radiography technique, a clinic component of their periodontics, and school-based prevention courses, a sealant lab and clinic, and radiographic interpretation. Students are evaluated primarily on professional development expectations.

INTD 5040. Fundamentals Of Neuroscience1: Molecular, Cellular, & Developmental Neuroscience. 2 Credit Hours.

This course is intended to introduce students to a broad survey of the basics of molecular, cellular and developmental neuroscience. The course is organized into a series of three modules: biochemical and cellular properties of nervous system cells, development of neuronal systems, and neutrotransmission and neuromodulation, which covers the fundamentals of these three areas. Current topics and concepts are discussed in discussion sessions that include student participation. Two components; Neuroscience students register for both PHYL 5041 and INTD 5040.

INTD 5043. Fundamentals Of Neuroscience 2: Systems Neuroscience. 3 Credit Hours.

This course, the second component of our broad survey of the basics of neuroscience, begins at the level of the neural circuit, and guides the students through an understanding of increasingly complex levels of organization and function in the brain. Topics include neurotransmitter systems, sensory and motor function, motivated behavior, regulation and integration of autonomic, behavioral, and emotional responses in the limbic system, higher order cognitive processes, and the neurobiological basis underlying some important psychiatric disorders and their treatment.

INTD 5046. Metanalysis In Cognitive Neuroimaging. 2.5 Credit Hours.

The objective of this course is to familiarize students with human functional brain imaging methods, experimental designs, statistical analyses, inferential strategies, and content. Students are guided through a literature-based research project that culminates in a quantitative metanalysis of a set of studies using similar tasks.

INTD 5047. Neuroanatomy. 2 Credit Hours.

The purpose of this course is to provide students with a practical working knowledge of the structure of both the peripheral and central nervous system. The emphasis will be on the organization of the human brain, although the brains of other species may also be included if appropriate for a specific brain region. The course will look at each of the individual components of the central nervous system in some depth but will also emphasize the complex integration of these various components into a functional brain. The topics covered in the course are specifically designed to mesh in time with those covered in Fundamentals of Neuroscience 2 describing the function of these areas. For this reason, it would be best if these two courses were taken concomitantly. The course will be didactic with digital images, models, and wet specimens included in the course.

INTD 5051. Research Methodology and Evidence-Based Practice. 2 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to introduce dental residents and faculty to critical thinking, research methodology, and evidence-based practice skills.

INTD 5057. Research I Protocol Development and Design. 3 Credit Hours.

The introductory course in research design and protocol development is limited to postdoctoral students enrolled in advanced education programs. It is the 1st of four required core research course for the Masters of Science in Dental Science curriculum. Registration for this course requires permission by the respective program director for a particular Masters of Science education track. The course occurs during the PGI year offered in summer, fall and spring semesters. Credit hours vary between educational tracks for a particular semester from 1-3 hours, with a total of 3 credit hours required for course completion.

INTD 5064. Applied Statistics for Health Care Practitioners. 3 Credit Hours.

This online course focuses on the application of descriptive and inferential statistics in research studies. Students are expected to gain knowledge and skills that will enable them to understand, interpret, and evaluate statistical results; work with a consultant statistician; and use software to enter, analyze, and summarize data. Course requirements include homework assignments, online discussions and/or chats, and periodic projects.

INTD 5066. Laughter is the Best Medicine: An Interdisciplinary Elective about Humor, Healing, and Healthcare. 1 Credit Hour.

This class is a serious look at humor! The physiological and psychological benefits of humor, as well as its therapeutic use with patient interactions, will be explored. Students will learn how to develop and improve their personal use of humor to combat burn out, through techniques to enhance coping skills and stress reduction. Student participation and interaction is integral to the content delivery.

INTD 5067. Introduction To Bioinformatics And Computational Biology. 2 Credit Hours.

The course will be taught by faculty from Biochemistry, Cellular & Structural Biology, CCRI, Periodontics, and faculty from UTSA. The course will be an introduction to methods and tools for working with DNA sequences and protein families, learning basic Unix networking, overview of numerical modeling, systems biology approaches to complex diseases, gene expression analysis, bioinformatics in clinical research, statistical tools for complex datasets, proteomics, structural methods for protein biology, chemoinformatics, molecular modeling, and mathematical model building.

INTD 5074. Topics In Translational Medical Product Development. 1 Credit Hour.

It is crucial to understand the intricate process of translating basic research into market driven products, navigate the complex pathways of intellectual property management and the regulatory affairs of agencies such as the FDA. This course will offer students in biomedical sciences the opportunity to integrate industry-relevant training and experience with their basic science education. The course will explore the marketing and regulatory process by which a biomedical product is developed and brought to commercialization.

INTD 5075. Complementary Healthcare for the Clinician. Credit Hours.

The goal of this elective is to introduce future doctors to practices outside of the classical medical school curriculum that promote an evidence-based approach to wellness. This is so that the medical students of the UTHSC School of Medicine are informed about the reality, evidence and rumor surrounding a variety of commonly used alternative and supplementary healthcare practices. The of this class is not to make the student an expert in areas such as acupuncture or yoga, but to be well informed of the role of such practices as it relates to patient treatment and wellness. To this end, all the classes will have a practical component which will allow the students to experience the alternative modalities in a structured setting.

INTD 5076. Introduction To Informatics. 1 Credit Hour.

This elective course is designed for students interested in information technologies in the context of clinical investigation. It offers an overview of the field of informatics applied to biomedicine, covering specific applications and general methods, issues, capabilities and limitations of informatics systems. Student teams will conceive, design, specify, implement, evaluate and report on a software project in the domain of biomedicine. The projects will include proposal writing, peer review, and preparing final reports, as well as guest lectures from field experts.

INTD 5081. Topics In Cardiovascular Research. 1 Credit Hour.

This course is designed to familiarize students with the current literature related to cardiovascular disease. Each week a different research topic selected from the recent literature is presented and discussed. Students are expected to attend and participate in the discussions. In addition, students are required to prepare and present once during the semester. A list of previous and current course presentations will be available online.

INTD 5082. Responsible Conduct of Research. 1.5 Credit Hour.

This foundational course introduces students to core ethical content necessary for responsible research conduct. Through interactive seminars, students will learn about (1) scientists as responsible members of society (contemporary ethical issues in biomedical research and environmental/social impacts of research), (2) policies for research with human subjects and vertebrate animals, (3) collaborative research, (4) conflicts of interest (personal, professional, financial), (5) data acquisition and laboratory tools (management, sharing, ownership), (6) responsible authorship and publication, (7) mentor/trainee responsibilities and relationships, (8) peer review, and (9) research misconduct (forms of misconduct and management policies).

INTD 5090. Grad Research Methodology. 2 Credit Hours.

This course is an introduction to methods and techniques used in dental research. Topics will include basic assumptions and concepts of scientific research, selecting research topics, specifying objectives and hypotheses, literature reviews, and experimental design.

INTD 5091. Special Topics. 1-4 Credit Hours.

This is a placeholder course, for which graduate students may register, if they are unable to select a specific track core course at the time of registration. Tracks are: Biology of Aging, Cancer Biology; Cell and Molecular Biology; Genetics, Genomics, & Development; Membrane Biology & Cell Signaling; Metabolism & Metabolic Disorders; Microbiology & Immunology; Molecular Biophysics & Biochemistry; Molecular, Cellular, & Integrative Physiology; Neuroscience; and Pharmacology. The course may be repeated for credit.

INTD 5094. Independent Study. 1-4 Credit Hours.

This elective allows for detailed in-depth study in a specific area of study. The area and mode of study are to be agreed upon by the student and instructor. The course may be repeated for credit when the area of study varies. Clock hours are to be arranged. Prerequisites: Graduate standing and consent of instructor.

INTD 5157. Research 1- Project Proposal. 1 Credit Hour.

The introductory course in research design and protocol development is limited to postdoctoral students enrolled in advanced education programs. It is the 1st of four required core research courses for the Master of Science in Dental Science curriculum. Registration for this course requires permission by the respective program director for a particular Master of Science educational track. The course occurs during the PGI year offered in the spring semester. In fulfillment of the Master of Science degree, registration for this course requires completion of INTD 5257 in the preceding semester.

INTD 5257. Research 1- Project Proposal. 2 Credit Hours.

The introductory course in research design and protocol development is limited to postdoctoral students enrolled in advanced education programs. It is the 1st of four required core research courses for the Master of Science in Dental Science curriculum. Registration for this course requires permission by the respective program director for a particular Master of Science educational track. The course occurs during the PGI year offered in the spring semester.

INTD 5357. Research 1- Project Proposal. 3 Credit Hours.

The introductory course in research design and protocol development is limited to postdoctoral students enrolled in advanced education programs. It is the 1st of four required core research courses for the Master of Science in Dental Science curriculum. Registration for this course requires permission by the respective program director for a particular Master of Science educational track. The course occurs during the PGI year offered in the spring semester.

INTD 6002. Ethics In Research. 0.5 Credit Hours.

This course covers topics relevant to ethics in scientific research. The course is taught on a case-study basis, dealing with real and hypothetical situations relevant to the conduct of scientific research. Topics discussed will include, but will not be limited to: data management, peer review, recognizing scientific misconduct, authorship, and The University of Texas regulations relevant to human and animal research. This course is required of all doctoral graduate students.

INTD 6007. Advanced Cell Biology. 2 Credit Hours.

This course provides an in-depth learning experience that instructs students on the fundamentals of cell biology as well as prepares the student to evaluate and design new research in the cutting-edge areas of modern cell biology. The course combines a didactic program of lectures along with a small-group discussion format in which students interact closely with a group of faculty who have active research programs. The course focuses on active areas of research in cell biology: Cell Signaling and Communication, Cell Growth, and Cell Death. Each week, the faculty the jointly discuss key publications that serve the bridge the gap between the fundamental underpinnings of the field and the state of the art in that area. Students and faculty will then jointly discuss key publications that serve to bridge the gap between the fundamental underpinnnings of the field and the state of the art in that area.

INTD 6008. Mitochondria & Apoptosis. 1 Credit Hour.

This course will focus in depth on Mitochondria and Apoptosis. Topics will include: Mitochondria and Respiration; Mitochondria and Reactive Oxygen Species; Mitochondria and Apoptosis. It will provide an opportunity for a unique learning experience where the student can prepare to evaluate and design new research in the cutting-edge areas of modern cell biology and molecular biology. Instead of a didactic program of lectures, the entire course comprises a small-group format in which students interact closely with a group of faculty who have active research programs. Each week, faculty will provide students with a brief overview of the research area. Students and faculty will then jointly discuss key publications that serve to bridge the gap between the student's prior understanding of the field and the state of the art in that area.

INTD 6009. Advanced Molecular Biology. 2 Credit Hours.

This course will provide an in-depth learning experience on the fundamentals of molecular biology as well as prepare the student to evaluate and design new research in the cutting-edge areas of modern molecular biology. The course combines a didactic program of lectures along with a small- group discussion format in which students interact closely with a group of faculty who have active research programs. The course focuses on active areas of research in molecular biology: Chromatin structure, Transcription, DNA Replication and Repair, Recombination, RNA processing and regulation, Protein processing, targeting and degradation. Each week, the faculty provide students with didactic lectures on a current research area. Students and faculty then jointly discuss Key publications that serve to bridge the gap between the fundamental underpinnings of the field and the state of the art in that area.

INTD 6010. Evidence Based Dentistry. 1 Credit Hour.

Designed to help students establish an "evidence-based practice" the course will provide students the opportunity to learn the skills necessary to evaluate and select new dental products and clinical procedures. This requires an ability to read and evaluate various sources of knowledge, including articles published in the dental and medical literature, advertisements, Internet sources, and continuing education programs. Lectures and readings are designed to provide a basic understanding of clinical research, epidemiology, and statistical procedures such that dental journal articles and other sources of knowledge can be critically evaluated. The long-range goal is to prepare the student to think critically and to make sound judgments regarding the acceptance of new knowledge, products, and procedures in private practice.

INTD 6011. Introduction To Science Of Teaching. 1 Credit Hour.

This course will provide insight into the basic skills of learning and teaching. Faculty from the Academic Center for Excellence in Teaching and the Graduate School will provide the opportunity to learn the skills, strategies, and experiences for a future in academia and teaching. Topics include lecture presentations on why scientists choose to teach, planning a student learning experience in addition to developing a lecture syllabus, curriculum and teaching portfolio and philosophy. The course is recommended for Supervised Teaching Course INTD 6071.

INTD 6014. Perio/Pros/Endo/Orth Interdisciplinary Course 2. 1 Credit Hour.

This seminar brings together the residents and graduate staff from the periodontic, prosthodontic, endodontic and orthodontic postdoctoral programs to share clinically relevant multidisciplinary information. Patient diagnostic evaluations and treatment plans are evaluated in an interactive environment. Selected topics involving new advancements are presented and discussed.

INTD 6019. Pharmacotherapeutics. 1 Credit Hour.

This course is designed to review general principles of pharmacology; current and accepted pharmacotherapy for the medical management of pain, infection, and selected systemic diseases; and associated adverse drug events. It is based on the top 200 drugs dispensed by U.S. community pharmacies for the prevention, diagnosis, and/or treatment of disease with special reference to dentistry.

INTD 6033. Cell Signaling Mechanisms. 2 Credit Hours.

This course covers the molecular mechanisms of action of various extracellular mediators including hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors, cytokines, etc., and cell signaling events. Several areas will be discussed including: (1) mechanisms of mediator synthesis; (2) interaction of mediators with specific receptors; (3) modulation by mediators of various second messenger systems including cyclic nucleotides, inositol phospholipids, calcium, protein phosphorylation, ion flux, etc.; and (4) intra- and intercellular mechanism for regulating mediator action.

INTD 6041. Basic Science Resident Lecture Series In Neurology. 1.5 Credit Hour.

This is an interdisciplinary advanced elective in which students attend 20 lectures, selected from the full offering of daily one-hour lectures comprising the Neurology Residents' Basic Sciences lecture series. These lectures cover a range of topics, such as Epilepsy, Movement Disorders, the Thalamus, Parkinson's Disease, Alzheimer's Disease, Stroke, Sleep, etc., all given from a clinical perspective. In addition, graduate students will have the opportunity to observe or participate in at least two enrichment activities related topically to the lectures they attend, which may include such settings as case presentations, diagnostic training sessions, or clinical observations, again selected from the list of offerings included in the "Neurology Residents" series.

INTD 6043. Structure & Function Of Membrane Proteins. 2 Credit Hours.

This is a course targeted at students within any of the Graduate Tracks. The objective is to provide a broad view, allowing for in depth consideration in selected areas, of the structure and diverse functions of proteins within a membrane environment. Specific topics covered will include: ion selective channels, large membrane pores, membrane transporters, membrane pumps, and membrane receptors. The format of the course will be didactic lecture followed by student presentations of relevant topics.

INTD 6045. Clinical Practicum In Neuroscience. 1 Credit Hour.

This course will provide students with a brief, but intense and very focused exposure to clinical practice in a relevant area of their choosing, designed and coordinated to best match their interests in close individual collaboration with a clinical mentor in one of the participating components: Neurosurgery, Neurology, Psychiatry, or Endodontics. Representative activities could include participation in case presentation and treatment planning, attending rounds with physicians and residents, direct observation of clinical procedures, patient interviews, follow-up care and outcome review. Potential venues may include inpatient psychiatric ward, sleep clinic, epilepsy clinic, stroke clinic, neurosurgical theater and surgical ICU. In consultation with the course director, students will first select one of the following sub-sections, then design their individually tailored clinical practicum experience with the coordinator for that section.

INTD 6057. Research 2 - Data Collection. 6 Credit Hours.

The course focuses on refining research design, implementation, and data collection. Enrollment limited to postdoctoral students in advanced education programs who have completed successfully both INTD 52057and INTD 5157, or INTD 5357 in PG1. This is the 2nd of four required core research courses for the Masters of Science in Dental Science curriculum. Registration for this course requires permission by the respective program director for a particular Masters of Science education track. The course occurs during the PGI 2 year offered in summer, fall and spring semesters. Credit hours vary between educational tracks for a particular semester from 1-6 hours, with a total of 6 credit hours required for course completion.

INTD 6058. Research 3- Data Analysis. 2 Credit Hours.

The course focusses analysis of research data and experimental design. Enrollment limited to postdoctoral students in advanced education programs who have completed successfully INTD 6057. This is the 3rd of four required core research courses for the Masters of Science in Dental Science curriculum. Registration for this course requires permission by the respective program director for a particular Masters of Science education track. The course occurs during the PG II year offered and is offered in both fall and spring semesters. Credit hours vary between educational tracks for a semester from 1-2 hours, with a total of 2 credit hours required for course completion.

INTD 6070. Teaching Excellence And Academic Skills (Texas). 1 Credit Hour.

This course, designed to assist graduate students and faculty in acquiring teaching skills, is composed of four modules, each covering a range of topics from lecture and clinical teaching to instructional development to assessing student achievement.

INTD 6088. Clinic Introduction. 4.5 Credit Hours.

The informatics module, one component of this course, is a continuation from the first-year module. Students continue training on a higher level of computer use. The clinic component of the course is a series of small-group rotations for distinct clinic modules including patient assessment, periodontics, caries detection, preventive methods, sealants, pulp testing, local anesthesia, oral surgery, radiographic technique recertification, radiographic interpretation, digital photography, constructing a stabilizing appliance, patient education, infant exam, and opportunities for assisting in various clinics with the Dental School at external sites. At the end of the sophomore year, students will have had the opportunity to become well acquainted with the clinic environment and techniques for initial patient visits scheduled for the summer clinic. Professional development expectations are emphasized in the overall evaluation.

INTD 6097. Research. 0.5-12 Credit Hours.

This course is intended for first-year IMGP students only. Students will be required to attend a minimum of 10 departmental (any) seminars during the semester and submit a 100-150 word synopsis of each seminar within two weeks of the seminar.

INTD 6098. Thesis. 4 Credit Hours.

The research thesis course is limited to postdoctoral students in advanced education programs who have completed successfully INTD 6058. This is the 4th of four required core research courses for the Masters of Science in Dental Science curriculum. Registration for this course requires permission by the respective program director from a particular Masters of Science education track. The course is offered in fall, and spring semesters. Credit hours vary between educational tracks for a semester from 1-4. The course occurs during the PG II and PG II year offered in summer, fall, and spring semesters. Credit hours vary between educational tracks for a semester from 1-4 hours, with a total of 4 credit hours required for course completion.

INTD 6115. Perio/Pros/Endo/Ortho Interdisciplinary Course 3. 1 Credit Hour.

This is a seminar that brings together the residents and graduate staff from the periodontic, prosthodontic, endodontic and orthodontics postdoctoral programs to share clinically relevant multidisciplinary information. Patient diagnostic evaluations and treatment plans are evaluated in an interactive environment. Selected topics involving new advancements are presented and discussed.

INTD 6357. Research 2- Data Collection. 3 Credit Hours.

This course focuses on refining research design, implementation, and data collection. Enrollment limited to postdoctoral students in advanced education programs who have completed successfully INTD 5257 and INTD 5157 or INTD 5357 in PG1. This is the 2nd of four required core research courses for the Master of Science in Dental Science curriculum. Registration for this course requires permission by the respective program director for a particular Master of Science education track. The course occurs during the PG2 year offered in fall and spring semesters. In fulfillment of the Master of Science degree, registration for this course requires registration for INTD 6357 for two semesters.

INTD 6657. Research 2- Data Collection. 6 Credit Hours.

The course focuses on refining research design, implementation, and data collection. Enrollment limited to postdoctoral students in advanced education programs who have completed successfully INTD 5257 and INTD 5157 or INTD 5357 in PG1. This is the 2nd of four required core research courses for the Master of Science in Dental Science curriculum. Registration for this course requires permission by the respective program director for a particular Master of Science education track. The course occurs during the PG2 year offered in the spring semester.

INTD 7002. Neurobiology Of Learning And Memory. 1 Credit Hour.

This course will focus on recent findings and topics related to the underlying aspects of the neural basis of learning and memory. Students will have the opportunity to learn about: molecular basis of memory formation, consolidation and retrieval, memory and emotion, associative learning, memory and amnesia, and recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe. The lectures will be interactive and driven by discussions of key journal articles. Each week the first hour will be reserved for lecturing and the second hour will be reserved for a discussion of a journal article.

INTD 7003. Elective in International Medicine. 4 Credit Hours.

This elective serves as a vehicle for students to participate in international medicine rotations. Students will work with a faculty sponsor to identify a program, either a pre-established site or a site discovered by the student which requires faculty approval. This elective includes: 1) The Center for Medical Humanities and Ethics International Scholars Program in India, a competitive program requiring a separate application through the department of Medicine, 2) Shoulder to Shoulder program in Latin America, which requires a separate application process and some cost (airfare and small project fee), and is available October, January, and April, 3) Programs in Nicaragua, Mexico, Panama, and Guatemala, and 4) Other sites available through online directory: http://www.globalhealth-cc.org/GHEC/Resources/GHonline.htm. All rotations share a commitment to service learning - medical education and self-reflection that arises out of service to needy populations. Students spend up to 4 weeks (or possibly longer) living in an international site and participating in the care of patients, under the supervision of local and visiting health care providers. The clinical settings and caseload will vary based on the location. There may be opportunities for patient education and emphasis on efforts of local empowerment, aiming to build up the communities in a sustainable way. Students will be expected to integrate themselves into the health care delivery system, and when possible, to strive to make an impact through community education and home visits. For certain Latin American sites, fluency in Spanish is a prerequisite. Students are encouraged to seek similar service learning experiences with underprivileged populations in San Antonio and Border communities prior to or after the rotation. End of rotation "reflection essays" are required and will serve to process student experiences.

INTD 7005. Indian Health Care Preceptorship. 4 Credit Hours.

This elective offers the opportunity for an experience in the health care of Native Americans, coordinated through the Indian Health Service. Most experiences involve both inpatient and outpatient care under direct supervision of board certified family physicians or internists. Educational activities such as conferences, teaching rounds, etc., may vary from site to site. All clinical sites are located outside the state of Texas, including sites in New Mexico, Arizona and Alaska. Early application is recommended. Students completing appropriate application forms may be reimbursed for transportation costs and provided room and board by the Indian Health Service.

INTD 7007. Literature and Medicine. 2 Credit Hours.

In this course you are required to read short stories, poems, and a book of nonfiction. While many of the stories or poems directly address medical or ethical issues, the primary purpose is not to enhance your store of knowledge in these areas, but to promote your appreciation of these works through discussions with other students (online via Blackboard and in class) and with authors and lecturers. Your own contributions to the course - not just the insights you've gained as medical students but the wisdom you bring to the class as human beings - will be critical to its success. We hope that the readings will help you prepare for and process your clinical experiences, furthering your development as a person as well as physician. There will be no "right" or "wrong" answers in this course; rather, our goal is to encourage thoughtful and serious responses to the readings and a lively and fulfilling conversation about them and the issues they raise. Students from Christian Medical College in Vellore, India, will join in our discussion online. MSIV students will receive two credits for completion of this longitudinal elective. All students are expected to participate in class discussions. Grades are earned by reading assignments, attendance at class meetings, and posting primary and secondary responses to posted discussion questions.

INTD 7020. Clinical Patient Management. 5 Credit Hours.

This course is designed to help students develop skills in clinical behavioral dentistry through small group discussions, lectures, and routine patient treatment by application of the principles of coordinating patient care; communicating effectively with colleagues, staff, and faculty; and managing time, records, and environment. The students are required to manage their comprehensive care patients in the Junior Clinic following the principles presented in this course.

INTD 7074. Topics In Translational Medical Product Development. 1 Credit Hour.

It is crucial to understand the intricate process of translating basic research into market driven products, navigate the complex pathways of intellectual property management and the regulatory affairs of agencies such as the FDA. This course will offer students in biomedical sciences the opportunity to integrate industry-relevant training and experience with their basic science education. The course will explore the marketing and regulatory process by which a biomedical product is developed and brought to commercialization.

INTD 7091. Independent Studies. 1-9 Credit Hours.

Students will have the opportunity to use this course to study for the National Board, Part II examination, according to their own need. This course also will serve as a framework for a student returning from a leave of absence or from other protracted time away from classes or clinic. At the conclusion of the course, the enrolled student must demonstrate knowledge and/or skills and/or values consistent with the expectations for entering the level of course study from which the student left. An individualized course of study will be developed once the student is enrolled.